Pollution in the Chesapeake bay
Environmental Protection Agency was cut back by the Reagan administration's deregulation effort, called voluntary compliance.In West Virginia:
Chicken farm manure runoff from eastern shore increased grreatlyh with scale of Frank Perdue farms, that by contract own everything about the process except the manure, which is left to small farmers to dispose of. Cheaper for them to dump it into streams.
in the headwaters of the Potomac river, a marine biologist finds fish with intersex characteristics (males with immature eggs of a female).Puget sound:
This is caused by endocrine disruption from powerful chemicals.
Unfortunately, fish hormonal systems are similar to humans, and water filters cannot remove this newer threat.
the orca population is top predator in food chain and the population is declining, now an endangered species.
Tests show Orcas have PCBs, even though these were banned years ago -- shows bio accumulation over long term.
PCBs still found in mud on river bottom, toxic buildup from half century of industrial waste
Like other Superfund sites, the polluter (Boeing) struggles with the public authorities over whose pollution entered the flume, and therefore its liability.
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The GI Bill
introduction by Jeremy Lewis, 2008; the rest by Elizabeth McLain, 2004, with bulleted insertions by Jeremy Lewis 2008
-The G.I. bill, officially the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, provided many benefits to veterans of World War II.
Chair John Rankin (D-MS) opposed HR bill on grounds it would give benefits (50/20 club provision) to black servicemen, including 50,000 in MS. bill passed after extensive search for a Rep. from GA whose vote was needed. risk of unrest as GIs were demobbed in 1945 Atom bomb ended war with Japan earlier than expected, government unprepared for early peacetime economy ethnic immigrant groups had limited choices of jobs pre war, but had worked in forces many black and ethnic soldiers lacked training or education, unable to cmopete in civilian economy all eligible after serving 90 days -- given a day (of education) for a day of service -- and could be paid to go to any college that would accept you. books and tuition covered, plus $65 a month "for blacks, the single most important thing in our lives" -- Harry Belafonte
-It established veterans' hospitals, provided for vocational rehabilitation, made low-interest mortgages available, and granted stipends covering tuition and living expenses for veterans attending college or trade schools.-Education was not the most important aspect of it however; the unemployment benefits were. It was keeping unemployed veterans off the streets
-It provided books and tuition
-It was especially important for black participants
-It gave $65 a month for participants to live on
-Many vocational schools and universities sprang up
-Acting schools were paid by the government to hire these people and teach them, Walter Mathau, Belafonte, Rod Steiger being among them.
-Many veterans went to trade schools and programs
-Many had a higher thirst for knowledge, based on greater maturity
Veterans took only 1/5 of appropriated unemployment benefits, because they moved quickly into worplace.
-Many could live comfortably from $20 a week.-Registration doubled, even quadrupled in some places.
HS graduation was considered the mark of an educated person before WW2
-Most people never even thought of going to college. Only the elite went
-Now they too could go to college, not just children of alumni or the rich who wanted to become doctors and lawyers.
Bob Dole: half of the college students would not have gone without GI Bill
-University of Michigan ballooned from 10,000 students to 40,000-Schools had to adjust; naval buildings were used as dorms until new buildings could be built
-1.6 million GI’s went to school 1947 which was 49 percent of students
institutions were not prepared for an invasion like this: class increased from 11,000 to 15,000 at one institution alone. libraries and dorms were built rapidly
-New sections of schools were made for married GI’s with families-People were very serious;
contrast with prewar policy of expulsion due to marriage or pregnancy
they normally took about 23 credit hours a semester and they usually did well because they had a reason to study. School was much easier than war.
-Harvard and University of Chicago thought this would destroy intellectual higher education.Housing program: VA loan—federally backed loan so qualified GI’s could get a new home once they graduated
-but vets hogged Deans List and honor roll- even the president of Harvard said that they were more mature.
cultural contrast with other students: GIs were not interested in fraternity hazing or wearing sophomore beanies, wanted to work
-Some went on to become great scientists (eg Nobel prize winner, eg inventor of pacemaker)
60% chose engineering and science degrees, leading to middle class society for the first time
-They gave back their knowledge through programs such as NASA's Venus mission.
-Many came from blue collar families and they could now have better jobs
e.g., African American economist earning a PhD at Harvard, a major breakthrough
-Housing developments were constructed at a rapid rate.-This was one of the most successful programs implemented in America.
Levittown constructed by a former Seabee, with standard yellow kitchens purchase with no money down, four rooms
-Houses came with washers and dryers which were never standard before.
-2/3 prewar people were renters; now 2/3 were owners
Cost $14.5 Billion, but the return was inestimable -- helping all without hurting anyone recipients point out college would have been impossible without the GI Bill.
Theme: Social transformation through infrastructure.
-weather related accidents lower the percentage rate of an aerostat to work[-other possibilities are reducing supplies by burning crops in colombia and other places (special forces get shot at)
-some see then as a waste of money because smugglers can still get by. Flying thrugh mountains or just waiting for high winds when the aerostat can't stay in the air
-when smugglers fly under 500 feet, it impairs the ability to detect as well.
-smugglers have ways to make it seem that they are landing in mexico, but in actuality he crosses through "the gate" that is near power lines that make it even harder to be detected and land in the US on a small rural runway.
-[Pork barrel issue] Senator Deconcini works on the aerostat project.
-Tcom is an organization connected to former staff of Deconcini
-the favors given by the senator was hidden, although it is not considered illegal.
-Pentagon had concerns on the Aerostats. shortcomings were apparent in the program. but congress mandated the purchase of the new aerostats although the pentagon didn't think it was cost effective.
-some agree with military in that aerostats are a waste of money
-would have been more efficient with a larger boat, such as used by the coast guardBorder control on land:
-1000 reservists were trained by Br. General John-In El Paso Texas, illegal immigrants enter the city everyday, smugglers just drive across the border with a huge flow of traffic. it is impossible to stop every car. They did it for 21 days in 1968 [Nixon's Operation Intercept] but the cost was too high and almost nothing was found.
-They aren't allowed to make a rest.
-only four marijuana seizes in 6 months, $660,000 was spent.
-Now they randomly search with dogs and electronicsCase of failure of ground interdiction:
-trained agents survey the drivers for signs of nervousness.
- [probably ineffective without intelligence to conduct targetted operations]
-Raphael Munoz is the head of a very profitable cocaine trafficking group, that made fortune 500 money.Corruption of local officials:
-He dealt with Colombian suppliers and moved the cocaine into the US. they would haul loads in luxury sedans -they crossed the border and were never caught. they would change cars and take the drugs to a warehuse, put it in a cargo truck full of piñatas and party supplies, then they would go to LA on a different route then the norm. They would send people ahead of the truck to make sure there were no dogs or anything to impair there crossing checkpoints. -when caught they had 22 tons of cocaine and 12 million dollars in cash -over 250 tons of cocaine total was dealt from the Tapea family. -an informant knew of the operation 11 months before the family was caught and never told anyone, [DEA agent] claimed she was too busy to check it out and the leads weren't developed enough to check out. [DEA agent claimed too busy to check out leads and received no help from supervisor] -the performance of custom inspectors was questioned and [witness testified] customs agents received ten thousand dollars a load. - were given to agents if a member of the family was about to get caught. [28 bridges are fertile ground for smuggling -- and under NAFTA, trade expected to grow between Mexico and US.]
-Candalaria, Texas is an extremely small town with a population of 60 people near the Rio Grande, [a small stream at this point]
[-three ways to reduce drug abuse:
Chambers and Rick Thompson smuggled drugs by driving across the Rio Grande in their truck. Chambers convicted on large scale smuggling. Rick Thompson was a [powerful Sheriff in Presidio county Texas, past president of Sheriff's association, and on regional narcotics task force. He campaigned against drug smuggling,] and popular politically. They both received life in prison after making 1 million dollars a truckload. Prediction is someon eelse will continue the flow of drugs despite $2Bn spent on federal interdiction
1) shoot the residents of Columbia and Peru and infiltrating territory and spray crops with poison. pay them not to produce drugs. US imperialism.-most effective is human intelligence, but it is the most dangerous.
2) reduce demand among Americans by going to schools and tell the children about the dangerous drugs and why not to abuse them. either by police officers, teachers, parents, and ministers. police officers (D.A.R.E.) is proven to be ineffective. parents and teachers make more of an impact.
3) most expensive and ineffective. interdict the flow of illegal drug trafficking. stop the supply from entering the country. applying technology is only partial solution.
by 1955 600 M lbs./yr pesticides used Carson: not insecticides, but "biocides" changed nation's way of thinking
grew up in Western Pennsylvania always wanted to be a writer, wrote books at age 10 BA: Biology Penn College for Women; MA: Zoology at Johns Hopkins
1936 - U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service science writer and researcher 1941 - First book Under the Sea-Wind Post WWII - Editor for publications at Wildlife Service 1951 - Second book Sea Around Us -- railed against arrogance of man revenues allowed Carson to quit job
used in WWII to fight typhus fever cheap, effective, and apparently safe crop production expanded as a result government endorsement sprayed public and private lands use expanded into the suburbs Spraying of her friend's bird farm. Attempted to expose the problem through Reader's Digest. Rejected. Evidence of chemicals killing insects but preventing birds reproducing annual use of pesticides on farms increased postwar to 600 M (lbs?) Problem was denial within gov't. -- and endorsing products Massachusetts bird sanctuary (owned by Carson's friend) sprayed, massacring large numbers of birds. Long Island lawsuit against spraying failed, but shows rising consciousness before Carson.
Houghton Mifflin editor believes her popular writing could overcome lack of interest of readers in pesticides fortunate find in a secretary, amid mass of materials manuscripts were packed with data slipped to her by individual government scientists Carson outraged by government attitude of secretiveness and denial of wildlife damage Dept. Ag refused to publish safe pesticides disposal. Industry insisted on lack of harm. Officials named in book sometimes lost their jobs. Simply can't eradicate an insect with a chemical Federal programs when spread to private lands caused loss of private property such as horses Carson argued Gov't exag'd significance of insect effects, e.g. fireants.
highly effective against insects but 40 times more toxic than D.D.T. spread in the South by Dept. of Ag. treated 1 M acres in the first year, despite protests Agriculture department denied damage -- but her colleague found thick Dieldrin in Georgia had killed many farm mammals around the fire-ant mounds.
derived from nerve gases, parathion, highly dangerous to humans and required moon suits. some found on drugstore shelves, capable of killing if dropped
1960 Carson suffering two breast tumors, needed radical left mastectomy, radiation had suffered illnesses for many years race against time, for 1 Jan. deadline for the publisher manuscript grew from 6 chapters to 17 1961 exerpts in the New Yorker -- editor had read manuscript in one sitting Fall 1962 first printing
Opposition to pesticides is a "tool of Communist menace" Chemical companies attempted to stop publishing after New Yorker Book carefully footnoted with data, could defend it from industry Sec. of Interior Mo Udall strengthened own scientists in support of Carson President Kennedy confirmed in press conference that scientists were checking into the matter American Medical Association, Monsanto & American Cyanamid (Dr. Roger White Stevens) all criticized "real threat to future of man is horde of insects" some of her data are good, but misplaced emphasis industry writer: people still afraid of pesticide residues, even though no longer present Carson convinced, saw no other side of story increased publicity, attempts at suppressing backfired 40 state legislatures enacted pesticide laws Carson interviewed by CBS: credible Ecology and "balance of Nature" terms coined and popularized -- natural laws that cannot be repealed by scientists Chemical industry scientists argued (eloquently) Man was beginning to control nature. Senator Ribicoff's Hearings Support from President Kennedy and Sec. Interior "Mo" Udall report Book translated into 23 languages, 1963. Carson died two years later, but environmental movement was active and successful within a decade.
Develop a greater sense of trust between doctors and patients doctors are put back in control of treatment, but also of costs Lower patients' rates of using expensive test and procedures Doctors vie for patients, which pits doctors against each other with patients caught in the middle
Beth Israel Deaconness, a Harvard teaching hospital in Longwood, the mecca of teaching hospitals:
Dr. Martin Solomon (practising over 20 years, grew up locally) has over thirty five patients per day and takes over one hundred phone calls. This flood of patients lowers the standard of care per patient. Doctors are being instructed on how to judge expense of the care they give. Hopefully this will lower the cost of patient care and make healthcare more affordable. CareGroup medical director, Dr. Kim Saal, believes that the key to lowering healthcare costs is reigning in doctors. CareGroup lost $100M on $1 B delivery doctors responsible for 80% of cost decisions There is a new focus on data, which makes healthcare more manageable.
Solomon's colleagues are losing money and have joined CareGroup by selling their practices a pod of about 20 doctors collectively attempt to monitor their spending Lower payments from employers & federal government squeezed them with rising costs for pharmaceuticals, etc One cost analysis doctor shows the comparative cost figures, Dr. Solomon is spending more than his pod average on radiology (graphs shown, and trend lines are up, not down) Tufts, rival Partners Health Care also losing money ($47 M) -- a widespread problem Deaconness suffered six years of staff cuts in 1990s, forced to respond to business imperatives CareGroup took over spending in return for a greater share of premiums, not failed to save enough
Some opponents of this new system believe that you cannot be that statistical about something so complex as healthcare. Many doctors do not like the feeling of having someone looking over their shoulders all the time. In the 90's employers started revolting against paying the high premiums, which resulted in the healthcare agencies going into debt. Veteran doctors dislike healthcare being refered to as a business, focusing more on making the patients more comfortable in a caring enviroment. organizational culture issue: contrast between business side and doctor-patient relationship time is money in new managed care system Hospital time for patients has been cut 25% in ten years Hospitals negotiate per capita rates with care systems
example of Mr. Steven Bookbinder (52) undergoing heart catherization, discovering he needs a bypass operation same day admission and discharge is equally safe -- but patient care not the same patient has little time to adjust to new information discharge after 72 hours following $30,000 bypass operation -- fits medical guidelines Bookbinder had to return to hospital with staph infection, which costs hospital substantial money
pregnancy stresses blood sugar levels in diabetics, risks for both mother (kidney, heart and vascular) and baby (premature and abnormal) example: patient visits 30 times, an hour each time The Joslin clinic pioneered safe delivery -- but costs 4-5 times the normal delivery but only reimbursed at normal level, hence loss making Loss of time with doctor, average now 7 minutes -- but Joslin needs much longer time World famous Joslin loses $5M per year -- made it unattractive in merger wars of 1990s. Perverse incentives -- Joslin has too many sick people CareGroup decided could not afford to include the Joslin in three years of 1990s, Congress dramatically cut medical reimbursements
nurse speaks to director about excessive patient loads on nurses, and excessive paperwork administrator: maintain state of emergency -- but avoid a state of panic Solomon: we have gone from Mecca of medicine to a medical Beirut Formerly, doctors paid more for doing more to patients, now paid more for doing less -- both extremes of incentives are wrong now affects personal income of doctors -- they lose if Group is in deficit paid $120,000 to $320,000 per year if they send patients outside their system, it costs the Group a loss Insurance Co may allow special treatment elsewhere, but doctors now have to resist Example of educated patient who found another system that specialized in her pregnancy malignancy and when Solomon declined to pay, after 14 years she bitterly left for Brigham and Women's next door.
SecureHorizons care plan seemed good but capitation system meant that doctors would be globally responsible for all costs of patient care. Many practices have trouble with Medicare HMOs, because rates go down and doctors may be forced to drop a plan. After several years of it being financially successful, Solomon's pod faced the reality that $5,000 premium only covered four days in hospital -- after that, making a loss. If at end of the year, they lost money, they would have to pay the insurance company -- and it happened Undeniable that cost controls affect the way doctors treat the patients Patient died after 67 days in hospital, which caused huge bill.