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PSC 309: Terrorism & Developing Countries

Griffiths, Robert (ed), Annual Editions: Developing World, 13/14

Readings selected for class, Fall 2013, are those that impact more than one country.
Questions asked, plus students' notes compiled, by Prof. Jeremy Lewis, revised 14 Aug. 2015 with questions.
UNIT 1: Understanding the Developing World
UNIT 2: Political Economy and the Developing World
UNIT 3: Conflict and Instability
UNIT 4: Political Change in the Developing World
UNIT 5: Population, Resources, Environment, and Health
UNIT 6: Women and Development



UNIT 1: Understanding the Developing World
1. How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know about Modernization, Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2009
- How do economic development and cultural changes influence the drive for democracy?
- In what ways do economic changes propel societal changes?
- How do Marxist and capitalist theories explain economic development?
- Does economic development lead changes that are conducive to democracy?
- Will emergent economies backslide into authoritarianism?
- Can we make countries into democracies in the absence of security or middle income?

A reinterpretation of modernization theory in a way that emphasizes the cultural changes that accompany this process helps to explain how pressures for democracy push societies toward greater openness and political participation. A key component is the connection between economic development and changes in society, culture, and politics that promotes tolerance, encourages self-expression, and fosters political participation.

2. The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends that Will Change the World, Jack A. Goldstone, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2010
- How will demographic changes affect the balance of developed and developing world, rich and poor, rural and  urban populations?
- Will shifting trends actually stop population growth?
- Will cities continue to grow - or will population move to the countryside?
- Can people retire from the North to the South, shifting the cost burden?

Declining fertility rates will stabilize world population in the middle of the twenty-first century. Shifting demographics will bring about significant changes in both rich and poor countries, however. The industrial countries will account for less of the world's population, their economic influence will diminish, and they will need more migrant workers. Meanwhile, most of the world's population growth will take place in the developing world, especially the poorest countries. Those populations will also be increasingly urban.

3. Best. Decade. Ever. Charles Kenny, Foreign Policy, September/October 2010
- While developed countries faced a difficult decade in the 2000s, how will developing countries remember the decade?
- In what ways did health and income improve in developing countries?
- Has poverty grown or shrunken in the decade, and where?
- What challenges remain from the last decade of development?

Despite being bracketed by the September 11th attacks and the global financial crisis, the first decade of the 21st century brought significant gains for the developing world. From economic growth and a reduction in the number of people living in poverty, to progress on infectious diseases and fewer conflicts, living conditions improved for many citizens of the developing world. Serious challenges such as environmental degradation remain, however.

5. The Democratic Malaise: Globalization and the Threat to the West, Charles A. Kupchan, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012
- If globalization drives wealth and power to the developing countries, how does that affect developed countries?
- Does the 'rise of the rest' mean difficulty for the West?

Western industrialized countries face steep challenges in dealing with the effects of globalization. These challenges follow from the diffusion of wealth and power to emerging markets in particular. The factors that have contributed to the "rise of the rest" are the same ones that contribute to the West's difficulties in responding to globalization.

Notes by Hayden Pugh, Fall 2013

*-A crisis of governability has engulfed the world's most advanced democracies. It is no accident that
the US, Europe, and Japan are experiencing political breakdown; globalization is producing a widening
gap between what electorates are asking of their governments and what they are available to deliver.
*-The growing demand for good governance and its shrinking supply is one of the gravest challenges
the Western World faces today.
-This crisis of governability comes at a particularly inopportune moment. The international system is in
the midst of tectonic change due to the diffusion of wealth and power to new quarters.
*-Globalization was supposed to have played to the advantage of liberal societies, which were
presumably best suited to capitalize on the fast and fluid nature of the global marketplace.
*-Instead, mass publics in the advanced democracies of North America, Europe, and the East
Asia have been hit the hardest because their economies are both mature and open to the world.
-In contrast, Brazil, India, Turkey, and other rising democracies are benefiting from the shift of
economic vitality from developed to the developing world.
*-China is proving particularly adept at reaping globalization's benefits while limiting its liabilities
(in no small part because it has retained control over policy instruments abandoned by its liberal
competitors. State capitalism has its advantages, atleast for now.)
*-Globalization has expanded aggregate wealth and enabled developing countries to achieve
unprecedented prosperity. The proliferation of investment, trade and communication networks have
deepened interdependence and its potentially pacifying effects and has helped pry open nondemocratic
states and foster popular uprisings.
*-Stagnant wages and rising inequality are as put by economic analysts Daniel Alpert, Robert Hockett
and Nouriel Roubini recently argued in their study “The Way Forward.”
-In the U.S. Partisan confrontation is paralyzing the political system.
-The underlying cause comes from decades of stagnant middle class wages and rising income
inequality.
*-The primary focus is on the loss of middle to low income jobs to international competitors
-Facebook net worth= $70bill. Employs 2,000 workers.
-General Motors Net= $35bill. Employs 77,000 workers
-Wealth not trickling down to lower class
*-Europe's crisis of governability, meanwhile, is taking form of a renationalisation of its politics.
Publics are revolting against the European integration and globalization.
-Faces same type of stagnant middle class wages and income inequality as the U.S.
*-Generational change is taking its own toll on popular enthusiasm for Euroean integraion. Europeans
with memories of WW2 see the EU as Europe's escape route from its bloody past; whereas younger
European's don't have a bloody past in which to flee from.
*-This brings about compromises that often have little or a neutral affect on policy.
The Solution-
*-What is needed is nothing less than a compelling 21st century answer to the fundamental tensions
among democracy, capitalism, and globalization. This new politcal agenda should aim to reassert
popular control over political economy, directing state action toward effective responses to both the
economic realities of global markets and the demands of mass societies for an equitable distribution of
rewards and sacrifices.
UNIT 2: Political Economy and the Developing World
6. The Post-Washington Consensus: Development after the Crisis, Nancy Birdsall and Francis Fukuyama, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011
- WIll developing countries still trust the western financial model after the 2008 crisis?
- Will they be more wary of international capitalism and capital flows?
- Will they be more inclined to support social spending and regulation of capitalism at home?

The Washington Consensus, which has guided international economic policy for decades, faces challenges as a result of the 2008–2009 global financial crisis. In the future, developing countries are much less likely to adhere to the capitalist model championed by the United States and its Western allies. Instead, they will be more wary of free-flowing capital, more inclined to prevent disruption through social spending, supportive of industrial policy, and less willing to defer to the West's alleged expertise.

7. Role Reversal, Eswar S. Prasad, Finance and Development, December 2011
- Have emerging markets rebounded from the 2008-09 financial crisis and world economic crisis more quickly than the Western industrialized countries, and what are the consequences?
- What kinds of data can be used to compare, and answer this question?
- Will emerging markets in future be more or less vulnerable to market swings?
- Have emerging markets rebounded from the 2008-09 financial crisis and world economic crisis more quickly than the Western industrialized countries, and what are the consequences?
- What kinds of data can be used to compare, and answer this question?
- Will emerging markets in future be more or less vulnerable to market swings?

Emerging markets have rebounded from the world economic crisis more quickly than the Western industrialized countries. Their growing participation in the global economy has helped insulate them from the effects of the recession and has also prompted a significant shift in the structure of emerging country assets and liabilities. This shift will give these economies even more opportunity to reduce their vulnerability to market swings.

12. Taking the Measure of Global Aid, Jean-Michel Severino and Olivier Ray, Current History, January 2010
- Is the concept of official development aid outmoded and should it be replaced by programs that better promote global public goods and recognize the challenges of globalization?
- Can we engage a wider range of actors, in a larger number of ways to both provide assistance and measure its effectiveness?

The concept of official development aid is outmoded and should be replaced by programs that better promote global public goods and recognize the challenges of globalization. Rethinking development aid requires recognition of the expanded goals of development, the existence of a wider range of actors, and a larger number of ways to both provide assistance and measure its effectiveness.

Notes by Justin Nolen, Fall 2013

Taking the Measure of Global Aid/ Jean-Michel Severino and Oliver Ray
Official development assistance is dying
Official development assistance-money given to developing countries for aid.
Based on illusions of unity, clarity, and purity of international community's goals.
Revolution that recently came about in development aid is expansion of goals to assistance.
During cold war developing aid bought influence in global south.
Widespread trade and markets created a major identity crisis for development assistance.
In 1990's development aid was for debts and crisis, then aid became much more people-centered.
9/11 brought global security scare to developed and undeveloped countries.
Globalization has increased risk  of transmittable disease spreading. It accelerated global warming and loss of biodiversity. Caused a food crisis and increasing energy prices.
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO's) have recently started giving in big ways for aid.
Haiti is an example of this aid by giving clean water and cause a long-term social redistribution.
Caring for refugees and natural disaster victims is undeniable aid.
Debt relief is included in aid.
The author feels we should forget about (ODA) the developing aid and start a global policy finance (GPF)
If we were to change from (ODA) to (GPF) it would recognize that old systems don't always work and sometimes need to be changed


13. A Few Dollars at a Time: How to Tap Consumers for Development, Philippe Douste-Blazy and Daniel Altman, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2010
- What percentage of LDCs' deaths are caused by preventable diseases?
- Can we tackle HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis together, and how can we fund such efforts?
- What types of innovative financing could reduce these diseases?

HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis account for one in eight deaths in developing countries. Because these diseases reinforce one another, an effort is under way to fight all three together. The funding for these efforts comes from innovative financing, which involves small taxes on airline ticket purchases and voluntary contributions through product purchases. Innovative financing will provide millions for fighting disease and help increase economic activity in developing countries.

14. Haiti Doesn't Need Your Old T-Shirt, Charles Kenny, Foreign Policy, November 2011
- Is it counterproductive to donate clothing and other goods to developing countries?
- Are there are better ways to aid needy citizens in the developing world?
- What is wrong with giving old clothes to the poor in developing countries?

Well-meaning Westerners donate clothing and other goods to developing countries but this practice can be counterproductive. Donated goods are often not what poor countries need, and there are much better ways to aid needy citizens in the developing world. Those who contribute unwanted goods or buy products from companies that make charitable contributions based on sales are less likely to give cash, thinking they have done their part.

UNIT 3: Conflict and Instability
19. World Peace Could Be Closer Than You Think, Joshua S. Goldstein, Foreign Policy, September/October 2011
- Is the world is a more violent place -- or have deaths in war actually declined over the past decade?
- How does modern conventional conflict compare in its destructiveness with the second world war?
- [How has precision guided weaponry affected the level of collateral (civilian) damage?]
- Are technological advances are making war more or less brutal, especially for civilians.
- Of the conflicts thought to be intractable, how many have ended or declined?

Although it seems like the world is a more violent place, deaths in war have actually declined substantially over the past decade. Technological advances are making war less brutal, especially for civilians, and improvements in peacekeeping practices have increased the chances that wars will not restart. All but a few of the conflicts once thought to be intractable have ended or substantial progress has been made toward settlement.

20. Uprisings Jolt the Saudi-Iranian Rivalry, Frederic Wehrey, Current History, December 2011
- How has the Arab spring affected the competition for regional influence between Iran and Saudi Arabia?
- What factors have sharpened or softened tensions between the rivals?

The competition for regional influence between Iran and Saudi Arabia has been made more complicated by the events of the Arab Spring. Political, ethnic, and religious differences as well as differing agendas regarding oil production have sharpened tensions. Iran's nuclear program adds another layer of complexity to the competition for regional hegemony.

25. Humanitarian Intervention Comes of Age: Lessons from Somalia to Libya, Jon Western and Joshua S. Goldstein, Foreign Affairs, November/December 2011
- Do past humanitarian interventions justify skepticism about the effectiveness of the international community's efforts to protect civilians?
- Have lightly armed UN peacekeepers been effective in preventing resurgence of conflict?
- Have more heavily armed NATO forces been effective in ending conflicts (peacemaking)?
- What lessons have been learned from such interventions?

The failures of past humanitarian interventions have prompted skepticism about the effectiveness of the international community's efforts to protect civilians. Western and Goldstein argue that the international community has learned not only from these failures but also from successes in Cote d'Ivoire, East Timor, and Libya. Among the lessons learned are the need for quick action, sufficiently strong peacekeeping forces, the ability to withstand criticism, and solid backing from a number of actors.

26. The True Costs of Humanitarian Intervention, Benjamin A. Valentino, Foreign Affairs, November/December 2011
- Did the benefits of intervention in Libya outweigh the costs of this operation?
- How much expended ordnance (e.g. missiles) does it take, on average, to save each life in a conflict?
- Could lives instead be saved by preventing conflict in the first place and by focusing on providing for those displaced by conflict?

The outcome of the intervention in Libya is still unclear, but the costs and benefits of this operation and those of future humanitarian missions must be carefully weighed. Intervention is costly and requires a commitment to assist in the rebuilding of war-torn societies. Many lives could be saved by preventing conflict in the first place and by focusing on providing for those displaced by conflict.

27. Global Aging and the Crisis of the 2020s, Neil Howe and Richard Jackson, Current History, January 2011
- WIll the balance of power be altered by the aging of the industrialized world?
- How will global relations be affected by the growth of the developing world's population ?
- What will be the impact on economic growth and productivity as well as security and stability?

Demographic trends are likely to produce greater disruption in the future. The industrialized world, with the exception of the United States, will have an aging and declining population in coming decades while the developing world's population will be passing through demographic transition. These trends will have a profound impact on economic growth and productivity as well as security and stability.

UNIT 4: Political Change in the Developing World
28. Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies, Jack A. Goldstone, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2011
- What factors cause political turmoil in the Middle East?
- What is the likelihood of a transition to democracy in the aftermath of this upheaval?

The political turmoil in the Middle East highlights the factors that increase the chances for revolution to occur. These include an unjust or inept regime, an alienated elite, broad-based opposition to the regime, and international support for change. The transition to democracy in the aftermath of this upheaval is not guaranteed and even if it does occur, changes are unlikely to be quick.

29. The Arab Spring at One, Fouad Ajami, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2012
- What have been the effects of the year since the Arab Spring, and what will be the shape of the new regimes?

In the year since the Arab Spring, the effects of the upheaval have been uneven. While it is clear that there was widespread dissatisfaction with the way that many countries throughout the region were ruled, the shape of the new regimes has yet to become clear. There are notable exceptions to the change that swept the region and the extent of democratization is unknown.

Notes by Hayden R. Pugh, Fall 2013

-Throughout 2011, a rhythmic chant echoes across the Arab lands: “The people want to topple the regime.”
-Arab Nationalism was to be a thing of the past and a “Pan-Arab” awakening was beginning to erupt. -The message spread with ease crossing borders, in newspapers, magazines, and social media. Fueled by young people in search of political freedom and economic opportunity, tired of waking up in the same tedium every day, they rose against their sclerotic masters.
-It came as a surprise, within two generations of sweeping democracy across Europe, Latin America, and Asia, the middle eastern despots had blocked out the political world and owned the country all but the name.
-It was a bleak landscape: terrible rulers, sullen populations, a terrorist fringe that hurled itself in frustration at an order bereft of any legitimacy.
 -Arabs started to feel they were cursed, doomed to despotism.
-It was said by the Arabs that George W. Bush had unleashed a tsunami on the region; that would be weathered by the autocracies surviving the moment of American assertiveness.
-It was a new era, Barack Obama came with a reassuring message: the United States was done with change; it would make peace with the status quo, renewing its partnership with friendly autocracies as it engaged the hostile regimes in Damascus and Tehran.
-Within the first summer of his presidency upon a revolt in Iran, The President was incapable of establishing a language in which to communicate with the rebels.
-The only “glue” left in the Arab region between the ruled and the ruler was this: fear and suspicion.
-That December, a despairing Tunisian fruit vendor, Mohamed Bouazizi took one way out. He set himself on fire to protest the injustices of the status quo.
-Suddenly, the despots, seemingly secure in their dominion, deities in all but name, were on the run.
Upheaval of Arab Despots
In order as in book:
Tunisia- Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali
Egypt- Hosni Mubarak. Reigned/tolerated for three decades
Bahrain- Sunni Monarchy, Shiite majority. Inevitable dissension.
Yemen- Ali Abdullah Saleh. Poorest of arab states, Tribes v. Warlords.
Libya- Muammar al-Qaddafi. Four decades of torment after savage Italian colonial rule.
Syria- Bashar al-Assad. Islams home after outgrowing Arabian penninsula..
-The marriage between despotism and secretarianism begat the most fearsome state in the Arab east.
-When the dust settled, Tunisia, an old state with an established identity had recovered with relative ease. Qaddafi's Libyan regime was toppled with some foreign aid. The shadows of Iran and Saudi Arabia hover over Bahrain. Yemen turned out to be a quintessential failed state; Afghanistan with a coastline. Syria, as we know, remains in chaos, and Damascus' membership to the Arab League has been suspended indefinitely.
-This “Arab Spring at One” was the third great awakening of its kind in modern Arab history. The first in the late 1800s sought to separate religion from politics. The second came in the 1950s and gathered force in the following decade.
-”The best day after a bad emperor is the first,” the Roman historian Tacitus once memorably observed. This third Arab awakening is n the scales of history. It has both peril and promise, imprisonment or freedom.


30. Good Soldier, Bad Cop, The Africa Report, April 2011
- What roles have the military played in the political turmoil in Tunisia and Egypt?
- How will the armed forces  react in other countries facing demands for reform?

The political turmoil in Tunisia and Egypt highlighted the important role the military plays in post-colonial regimes. In Tunisia, the military stood largely on the sidelines while in Egypt the military has taken charge, ostensibly to pave the way for elections. It remains to be seen how the armed forces will react in other countries facing demands for reform.

Notes by Nick Howell, Fall 2013

Egyptian revolutionaries are asking whether the military can be trusted to manage the transition to democracy
The Nasser model has been the model for post-colonial regimes in Africa and specifically in Egypt
under this model the secret police did the spying and torturing while the army and air force stayed away from daily repression. The military acted as guardians of the national interest.
Most armies in Africa have grown out of forces that had been fighting for colonial independence of their country. But they have become fused with parties that are running corrupt and repressive regimes.
Epyptian and African leaders worried that if the population digagrees with them and wants them removed then their generals will remove/ force them to retire and take control


31. "Moderates" Redefined: How to Deal with Political Islam, Emile Nakhleh, Current History, December 2009
- Have Islamic political parties changed their political ideologies over time, have they moderated their demands for Sharia, and are they are more inclined to participate in electoral and legislative politics?
- Are Islamic movements becoming more ideological or more pragmatic in the Middle east and beyond?
- Are the radical politics favored by al Qaeda on the wane -- or will extremism continue to be a problem?

Islamic political parties have changed their political ideologies over time, moderated their demands for Sharia, and are more inclined to participate in electoral and legislative politics. Political pragmatism has come to characterize the Islamization of politics in several Muslim-majority countries in the Middle east and beyond. The radical politics favored by al Qaeda and its supporters are on the wane but extremism will continue to be a problem.

39. Human Rights Last, Gary J. Bass, Foreign Policy, March/April 2011
- Should we be concerned about Chinese engagement with some of the world's worst human rights offenders?
- Is Beijing's policy of engagement driven primarily by economic or power considerations?
- How has the Chinese government supported or urged reform upon repressive governments such as those of Sudan and Zimbabwe?

Chinese engagement with some of the world's worst human rights offenders prompts concerns about growing Chinese influence around the world. A long-time proponent of non-interference in internal affairs, China's position has shifted slightly over the years but Beijing remains reluctant to criticize human rights abuses. Its policy is driven primarily by economic considerations.

40. Not Ready for Prime Time: Why Including Emerging Powers at the Helm Would Hurt Global Governance, Jorge G. Castañeda, Foreign Affairs, September/October 2010
- Should emerging countries have more influence in international institutions?
- Do emerging powers have commitments to human rights, free trade, non-proliferation, and environmental preservation?
- Would their participation undermine efforts aimed at greater global governance?

There is growing recognition that emerging countries should have more influence in international institutions. Jorge Casteñeda argues that the most likely candidates for more power have weak commitments to human rights, free trade, non-proliferation, and environmental preservation. Their participation could undermine efforts aimed at greater global governance.

UNIT 5: Population, Resources, Environment, and Health
41. The End of Easy Everything, Michael T. Klare, Current History, January 2012
- As the easiest sources of energy and minerals are depleted, will we have to employ more difficult, expensive, and dangerous methods to extract resources?
- What proportion of these resources are located in countries plagued by corruption and conflict?
- Will this drive up prices for other commodities?

As the easiest sources of energy and minerals are depleted, more difficult, expensive, and dangerous methods must be employed to extract resources. These resources are also often located in countries plagued by corruption and conflict. The increasing cost of these resources is also likely to drive up prices for other commodities.

42. Is a Green World a Safer World? Not Necessarily, David J. Rothkopf, Foreign Policy, September/October 2009
- Will a greener energy world be a more peaceful one?
- In what ways could trade disputes, and resource scarcity, bring security challenges for both industrialized and developing countries?

As the world seeks alternative energy sources, there is a distinct possibility that a greener world will not necessarily be a more peaceful one. Trade disputes, resource scarcity, and the dangers of alternative energy sources threaten to make the shift to more environmentally sound energy production a security challenge for both industrialized and developing countries.

Notes by Nick Howell, Fall 2013

Greening the world will eliminate some serious risks that we face but it will also create new ones,
Competition for Lithium
Competition for water used to power some kinds of alternative energy
Nuclear power plants, risk of terrorists get their hands on dangerous atomic materials goes up.
Rise and Fall of Oil powers
20 years from now the world will still be getting at least three quarters of its energy from oil, coal, and natural gas.
Oil rich states will be on the decline. It is more likely that the Demand peak for oil will come before the supply peak does.
Aftershocks of coming nuclear boom
Nuclear energy is essentially emissions free and compared to oil, energy efficient.
But with each new program the chances of a security breach increase.
Radioactive waste can be used to produce a dirty bomb
A nuclear event would have broad global aftershocks affecting areas as diverse as civil liberties and trade
Water wars
1.1 Billion people dont have ready access to clean water, estimates say that within two decades as many as 2/3rds of the earths people will live in water-stressed regions.
Some Bio-fuels use substantial amounts of water
Lithium
The electric car is becoming very popular because of the freedom from oil and could play a signifigent role in lowering carbon dioxide emissions.
All batteries use lithium, it will become a hot commodity in the next immediate years.


43. The World's Water Challenge, Erik R. Peterson and Rachel A. Posner, Current History, January 2010
- How much of the world's population lacks access to potable water and adequate sanitation?
- What efforts have been made to establish a value for water that will promote more efficient use of increasingly scarce water resources?
Maps of rivers flowing across national borders: Nile (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and others, to Egypt) | Euphrates (Turkey and Syria to Iraq)  [Better map links inserted after display in class]

A substantial portion of the world's population lacks access to potable water and adequate sanitation. A recent report forecasts as much as a 40 percent gap between global water demand and reliable supply over the next 20 years. Despite this, there has been little effort to establish a value for water that will promote more efficient use of increasingly scarce water resources. Consumption patterns and climate change are likely to both sharpen competition and increase the likelihood of conflict and have a detrimental impact on development prospects.

45. The New Geopolitics of Food, Lester R. Brown, Foreign Policy, May/June 2011
- The upward trend in food prices is being driven by which factors?
- Will wealthier countries turn to increased production - or to land acquisitions in poor countries?

Food prices have continued to climb, affecting the world's poor in particular. The upward trend in food prices is being driven by factors that make it more difficult to increase production, including an expanding world population and demand, climate change, and water scarcity due to the depletion of aquifers. With the most agriculturally advanced countries nearing the limits of production, and other countries restricting exports, wealthier countries have turned to land acquisitions in poor countries.

UNIT 6: Women and Development
46. The Women's Crusade, Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, The New York Times Magazine, August 23, 2009
- What is the evidence that the marginalization of women and girls throughout large portions of the developing world not only holds these women back but contributes to global poverty and political extremism?
- Can educating girls and providing access to credit through microfinancing have an impact on poor families?
- Should the US direct more foreign aid toward women, improving reproductive health, and focusing on keeping girls in school?

The marginalization of women and girls throughout large portions of the developing world not only holds these women back but contributes to global poverty and political extremism. Educating girls and providing access to credit through microfinancing can have a profound impact on poor families. Directing more foreign aid toward women, improving reproductive health, and focusing on keeping girls in school should guide foreign aid policy.

47. Gender and Revolution in Egypt, Mervat Hatem, Middle East Report 261, Winter 2011
- Were women participants in the uprising that removed Hosni Mubarak from power in Egypt?
- Have the military government and both the Islamic and Christian establishments been slow to engage on women's issues and to what degree is there resistance to enhancing the status of women?

Women were prominent participants in the uprising that removed Hosni Mubarak from power in Egypt. Nevertheless, women are facing serious threats to the gains they had made under the both the Mubarak and Sadat regimes. The military government and both the Islamic and Christian establishments have been slow to engage on women's issues and there is resistance to enhancing the status of women.

48. Girls in War: Sex Slave, Mother, Domestic Aide, Combatant, Radhika Coomaraswamy, UN Chronicle, No. 1&2, 2009
- In what ways are girls and women vulnerable in armed conflicts?
- How has the international community responded to hold accountable those responsible for crimes against women?

Girls and women are particularly vulnerable in armed conflicts. They may be subject to rape, sexual assault, and human trafficking, recruited as child soldiers, displaced or turned into refugees, or become orphans, often managing child-led households. The international community has responded by creating a framework to hold those responsible for these crimes accountable and the UN Security Council has established a Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict.

50. The Global Glass Ceiling: Why Empowering Women Is Good for Business, Isobel Coleman, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2010
- In what ways is international business beginning to realize the benefits of empowering women in the developing world?
- What programs have multinationals begun to invest in health, education, and leadership development for women and girls in developing countries?
- To what degree can such programs help to reduce gender disparities and improve society as well as contributing to the company's bottom line?

International business is beginning to realize the benefits of empowering women in the developing world. Multinationals such as GE, Nike, Goldman Sachs, and others have begun to initiate programs to invest in health, education, and leadership development for women and girls in developing countries. Such programs help to reduce gender disparities and generally improve society as well as contributing to the company's bottom line.


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