Excluded the Secretary of State but included a member of Kissinger’s staff, Winston Lord. The Chinese realized this breach of protocol needed to be covered, and cropped him out of the pictures. Chinese organized bus tours for journalists to the Great Wall, universities, etc. to keep the media from knowing too much about what was going on in the meetings. Excluded the Secretary of State from almost all meetings and information, but included the National Security Advisor. Breaches of protocol. China said that America could not continue to support Taiwan while building relations with China. Nixon’s handwritten notes called Taiwan and Vietnam were irritances in the new relations with China. Nixon and friends went to a ballet, written by Mao’s wife. The ballet showed that there was one China, and that Taiwan was a part of it. Rogers received a copy of the communication of supporting treaty responsibilities with Japan, Korea, and China and were outraged. State department felt that all requirements in the area must be upheld, even those with Taiwan. If Rogers drifted away in protest, Nixon was afraid that the Republican right would act against it and raise “Holy Hell” in response to abandoning Taiwan.
In May, Russia signed the treaty to limit the amount of nuclear weapons. Taiwan would flourish economically. China gained a position on the world stage.
Towards the end of the Vietnam War where China said they were willing support Vietnam in the war.• To avoid problems national affairs, Nixon cut out State Department.
• Border conflict (edge of war) between Soviet Union and China gave Nixon a chance to start his “China Games”.
• Mao wants Taiwan as a part of “One China”.• Nixon had a ‘secrecy diplomacy’ behind other officials back in relations with China.
• Mao sent personal invitation to Nixon to see him and since they both ‘loved’ secret diplomacies they kept it that way until it was made to look like Nixon was the one to ask to come over.• “Two-China’s” policy was announced during all the secret arrangements and talks between China and US.
• Chinese all about ‘Face’.
• Kissinger had to be snuck into Beijing to arrange the meeting and wasn’t even able to wear a nice shirt because of the rush to get him over there privately.
• U.S. ends the limitations for travel to China. American Ping Pong group went to play against Chinese.• "We were embarking on a voyage of philosophical discovery as uncertain, and in some ways as perilous, as the voyages of geographical discovery of an earlier time."- Nixon on going to China.
• Mao was in such a hurry to meet with Nixon that he went to meet with him right before Nixon was able to step in the shower after the flight.• Rogers [Sec. of State] was upset over a few things and was on the verge of not giving his support for these new relations with China
• Nixon breached a lot of protocol during this meet like for example having a junior aide take the place of someone further up like secretary of state.
• The Chinese did a good job keeping the American [press] in the dark during their visit by touring them on a bus to see places like the Great Wall and Peking.
• Negotiations were still underway for Taiwan at this point.
• “There is one China, and Taiwan is a part of it”. They just never said who should govern this China.
• “To get rich is glorious” – Communist Beijing. [A gracenote to film.]
which would also ruin Nixon’s whole election coming up as well as the relations themselves. In a fit to stop this from happening Chou En-lai went to visit Rogers and basically talked him into supporting.
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Truman in presidential campaign season. Decided to supply Berlin by air, to maintain city without miltiary confrontation on ground. British ration experts calculated 1,700 calories per person needed, fuel added and multiplied by weight for flight loads. 4,000 tons needed per day, a huge goal. First efforts only 90 tons per day. C-47s could only carry 3 tons.
Had to intensify flights, flying five aircraft at different altitudes along two outbound corridors and one return. Continual stream, only seconds apart, in triangular flight paths. Gen Lucius Clay organized effort -- had flown supplies over Himalayas for China in WW2. Templehof airport needed to be expanded with 18,000 workers, mostly women Chocolate uncle best of several propaganda efforts on both sides. A few crashes and bailouts inevitable. US pilot bailed out directly on route, aided to freedom by German former POW, Schnabel -- who was captured and interrogated by communists. Later Schnabel was helped to escape.
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Estonia and Chile examples of countries that have made transition to 1976 Nobel Prize in Economics Struggle to convince the world of the power of his ideas. Milton & Rose partners for 68 years, with degrees in same discipline. Friedman prize awarded for advancing liberty, $500,000. Hernando de Soto winner, and Friedman 93 yrs. Long lag in changes in climated of opinion to changes in political life. Problem is to persuade people to practice what they preach. Alan Greenspan: few have original ideas that can alter the direction of civilization.
Fomer soviet Estonia, on Baltic sea and sandwiched between Russia and Finland. Econoimc backwater. 1990s emancipated, elected 32 year prime minister with young cabinet. Faced heavy unemployment. Tax free zone for reinvested profits --- now one of freest economies of world, with strong growth. Most competititve in European union. Finnish company invested in major factory. Heavily wired for internet. Abandoned graduated income tax for flat 24% with no loopholes. Lan to catch up with living standards of EU in just one generation.
Free markets though were feared after WW1 John Maynard Keynes called for government controls and offered little risk of inflation.
Immigrants to NY, Rahway NJ HS. Father died, Friedman attended Rutgers U. Black Thursday ushereed in Great Depression, half banks failed. 1932, Milton 19 years old, found unemployment in Chicago with machines idled. University of Chicago had leading econoimcs department. Friedman and Paul Samuelson both attracted to the dept. Remained friends and debating adversaries for life. Jacob Viner's class helps him see whole system, and introduced him to Rose, who sat next to him alphabetically. Prof. Frank Knight suspicious of Government intervention.
FDR inauguration: only thing we have to fear is ... fear itself. New Deal programs to put people back to work. Rose took FDIC job in Washington, working in New Deal, Milton in NYC 138 letters, followed by traditional marriage. Number codes for frequent phrases: #2 for "you are right and I am wrong".
Milton institutes withholding tax for war effort first assignment on prevention of inflation -- initially sounds Keynesian. Gary Becker: market economies susceptible to unemployment, requiring government investment. Returns to Coumbia U for PhD while working. Daughter a lawyer, son David and economist. Geat belief in reason and tolerance. Truman: flags of freedom fly all over Europe.
Succeeds Jacob Finer at U Chicago. US Economy triples in a decade. Socialism and communism much more popular than before. Churchill, though defeated by Labour party, issues warning about Iron curtain, Stettin to Trieste. Mount Pellerin society of global intellectuals from economics and politics -- a small minority of classical liberals. Keynesianism was dominant and pervasive. Dartmouth College library his research base for "Capitaf", New England summer home in NH. Book, Capitalism and Freedom. 1957, Theory of the Consumption Function, criticism of Keynesianism. People make decisions based on permanent income, not short term income -- now widely accepted. A Monetary History of the United States, with Anna Schwartz, most inlfuential. Great Decision caused by failyre of Federal Reserve. Dec 11, 1930 Bank of US of NY failed -- Fed Researve failed to flood country with liquidity. Friedman ridiculed wby many for this way out notion. Galbraith, FDR's price czar of WW2. Wage and price control are indispensible part of any economic policy. Prof. Friedman "one cause, one cure, man"(monetary policy). Friedman seen as having finest thinking of C18th! But Friedman was so clear, convinced profession had not analyzed clearly. School Choice Called for choice in public schools, owing to failure of inner city schools. Should be able to choose any school, public or private, with voucher. Harvard researcher shows with voucher worth half of tuition, in Wisconsin, after 3-4 years significant improvement among voucher students. Friedman: competition is better than monopoly. 1960s, international attention and foreign travel: India, Europe, Asia, Middle East. 1964 election, Friedman advises Goldwater campaign (rare among intellectuals) -- landslide loss. DRAFT ISSUE Anti Vietnam War agitation, Nixon elected with Friedman invited as adviser. Friedman, "Use of compulsion is repugnant" - called for end to draft Nixon appoints Friedman and Greenspan to commission to review the draft, demolished "mercenary" label. Marty Anderson, borrowing from Milton's paper, wrote volunteer force plan. Army spends $200 M per year advertising - to sway life decision, aimed at parents. Now 502,000 soldiers, all volunteers. CHILE From 1964 chilean students to U Chicago had developed free market views. Allende won election, 1,000 % inflation, nationalizations, food shortages, miners strikes, banging of pots and pans. Sep 11, 1973 Pinochet's coup covertly supported by US. Friedman speaks on free economy and need for free democratic elections. Agreed with Chicago boys on need for short, sharp shock to break inflation. Monument to disappeared -- but economic miracle of affluence. Socialist governments of C21 have reaffirmed markets' success: with good quality of life and education, exporting fruits and veggies, salmon, wines. privatized pension system (10% in personal retirement fund0 has dramatically raised savings. poverty rate cut in half since 1986. "Society that puts freedom before equality will have a great measure of both." Advised president Ford on reducing inflation became a columnist for the Washington Post for 17 years, and even in Playboy. 1976 moved to San Francisco and Hoover Institution. Public radio suggests Free to Choose program. unscripted program, with onsite discussions of markets in Hong Kong and NY gold bullion vaults. Broadcast in Japan and all Europe except France. Adapted for book, sells a million copies. Ronald Reagan won 1980 election with persuasive manner but based on ideas of Friedman. invited Friedman to join economic advisers, with Freidmanites government reduction policies, budget control [ignores military increase] Lao-Tzu: "govern a great nation as you would cook a small fish: do not overdo it." Nixon the smartest, but not best in character -- did institute price freeze. Reagan not as intellectual but strong in principles. Presidential medal of freedom: "restored commonsense to world of economics." Visit to China economic reform in a communist nation Berlin wall came down and China became large trading nation Clinton China and India now 37% of world population, now enjoying a better standard of living. Conclusions on degree of influence across society 1912-2006
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They tour Africa and do not find enough material. They are about to give up and go home when a truck in front of them is shot by African rebels. They are forced to stay in a nearby town for the next few days, until it is safe to travel again.
It began when a girl named Alice Lakwena announced that she had been inspired by spirits to topple Uganda's government. She gathered up a following. One of her followers was a man named Joseph. He gathered up an army of fighters who thought they were indestructible because they had the spirits on their side. For example, they smeared themselves with shea oil, believing that it would deflect the bullets. Joseph fed off of Alice's ideas and now has an enormous rebel army in Northern Uganda.
They are chosen because they are moldable, yet big enough to carry a gun- "the perfect candidate". At night, the rebels invade rural communities and villages. They abduct the children in their sleep and take them to the rebel camp, an area called the Bush. The children are then desensitized through indoctrination (mutilation, scare tactics). Once they begin serving as child soldiers, they are forced to kill. If they do not kill a certain number every day, they are themselves tortured or killed in front of the rest of the soldiers. Over time, death has desensitized, even brainwashed, them. Over 50,000 people have been abducted, yet many more have not yet been accounted for.
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Mogadishu is a poor city in Somalia, in the horn (eastern coastal point) of Africa, across the water from Arabia. It is easily accessible from the sea, though there are few roads to the interior. In the 1980s and 1990s it lacked the most basic needs: a governmental system, food and water, and security.
In Dec. 1992, President George Bush sent US troops to Mogadishu in Somalia to assist in peacekeeping with United Nations troops while charities sent civil aid.
The war-torn and poverty-stricken country, suffering years of drought and strife, resembled a Hobbesian world: lawless, armed, with a young population high on Khat.
Unfortunately, there was a cultural issue: US troops were inadvertently showing the soles of their feet from the helicopters to Arabs on the ground, an unintended insult.
Aidid, a former general and then warlord, was fighting for control of the food, and hence money for weapons and control of the land. By ensuring a flow of food to starving people, the US troops were also damaging the control of food of a warlord.
As American-led UN troops reduced Aidid's militia's theft of food, and Pakistani troops raided one of his arms caches, he retaliated by massacring and mutilating Pakistani troops.
At this point, the US and UN had to decide whether to pull out and send a message of weakness to other trouble spots -- or to fight with a well-armed militia.
The new Clinton administration quickly sent Secretary of State Madeleine Albright to the UN, which resolved to apprehend those responsible. Clinton ordered a helicopter-borne missile strike against Aideed's headquarters meeting, leaving many dead and wounded.
Unknown to the force commanders, the administration also sent a diplomatic envoy to negotiate a settlement.
It also ordered the arrest of Aidid, a new mission.
Critics have complained that this mission creep placed the US in a hostile city without the heavy armor needed to make the arrest.
Instead, Delta Force and US Army Rangers would use helicopters and trucks to assault, arrest and evacuate in a highly coordinated operation.
Practice missions, however, gave the militias a view of the tactics, and the counter-tactics needed. Aidid's milita commander states that he focussed on the low-flying helicopters as the vulnerable point, intending to trap the mobile Americans in a static urban battle.
In the fog of war, directing from a helicopter a ground convoy through narrow streets and heavy small arms fire became a confused mess. Even the finest US troops became lost and took heavy casualities until they took cover and night fell. Intensive efforts to evacuate the wounded led to further heavy casualities on both sides.
There was (it is claimed) questionable intelligence, cumbersome channels of communication from the CIA officer up to his HQ and then back down to the local military commander. There followed a bloodbath on the ground. Some 1,500 somalis were dead and wounded; 18 Americans were killed (with at least one mutilated, on television) and 100 wounded.
Soon after, president Clinton withdrew US forces from Mogadishu; other forces followed and without security, humanitarian aid from charities had to be withdrawn.
The book raises in further detail the extraordinary heroism of soldiers in defeat, for example the individual airborne snipers and para-rescue jumpers who sacrified their bodies to defend US pilots from large hostile crowds.
The operation raises the strategic and constitutional issues of justice in war
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Pakistan army is fighting the Taliban in Southern Pakistan. There is a rehab facility in Peshawar to tend to the injured caught in the crossfire by both sides. The Taliban wear masks and broadcast on radio to inflict fear on the people. The Taliban have banned girls from attending school and work.Swat Valley:
Swat valley is a very combative zone in Northwest Pakistan. It was known for its beauty and was Pakistan's only hope for a tourism industry. [It is an existential threat to the Pakistani government because it is so close to Islamabad.] The Pakistanis have renamed the city square “Bloody Square” because of the daily beheadings. The reporter hears firing and an explosion in the area. The Taliban has surrounded the area. The Taliban uses the radio to scare citizens. Nearly 200 schools have been destroyed in Swat. While walking through the rubble with a young girl, the reporter asks, “Why do you like school?” She replies, “Because education is like a ray of light and I want that light.”The Taliban use propaganda videos, stipends, and the promise of food and water to lure young men. The Taliban run their own schools. They teach boys the justification of suicide attacks. The reporter talks to a young boy that is a member of the Taliban. He joined when 15. He states that the children are given a lot of training. The reporter asks the boy if the Taliban have enough young boys like him to defeat the Army and the boy responds, “God willing”.
The reporter cannot go to Peshawar. Women will be killed if they go. She sends a local camera man. The new leader of the Pakistani Taliban, Hakimullah Mehsud states, “If America continues bombing the tribal areas, then we are compelled to attack them.” He also states, “If the Pakistani leaders and army maintain their stance then we will take control of Peshawar and other cities.” This is no idle threat. War has already arrived in the capital city, Karachi. It has become a recruiting ground for the Taliban. Most of the children study at small religious schools (“madrassas”) and play cricket afterwards. They memorize the Koran. The state education system has collapsed. Most boys have to attend madrassas where they can only study the Koran. The Koran is written in Arabic, a language they cannot understand [The Pakistani language is Urdu]. One of the students said, “The government should forbid women and girls from wandering around outside, just like the government banned plastic bags, no one uses them anymore, we should do the same with women.” His teacher states, [a distance away from the camera] “No matter how many Muslims die, we will never run out of sacrificial lambs.” The student states that he would love to be a suicide attacker. Child suicide videos are everywhere. The reporter goes to meet a commander responsible for child recruitment. He tells the reporter the reason that the Taliban is attacking the Pakistani army is that the army started attacking their fellow Muslims. The Taliban had to perform Jihad. He states, “Children are tools to achieve God’s will. And whatever comes your way, you sacrifice it.” He admits that he sacrifices children as young as five. There are 80 million children living in poverty in Pakistan, children that the Taliban has easy access to.
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Program killed or captured 12,000 militants 2010-11. Example:
COIN strategy, protect villages and isolate them from insurgents.
Embedded with the 101st Airborne in Khost province, that has received intelligence about a militant leader to target for a raid. Not enough troops to secure all the province, in East Afghan, so raiding to keep enemy on the run. Hit the wrong compound, with indignant owner, later released. Afghan troops ashamed of US decision of continuing with search and arrest. Minimal arms found in home.
Example in Anbar,
John Nagl: counterinsurgency uses force -- but targeted force. Gen. McCrystal developed Kill-Capture programs [he was later sacked by President Obama after making some tactless remarks to a journalist] Gen. Petraeus was responsible at time of interviews. JSOC is outside NATO chain of command. Target list of thousands of names; 3,000 ops in 90 days. High tempo of ops. K/C missions create space for the majority of (conventional) force to focus on population.
One operation from late 2010:
of Marines under fire, heavy and frequent, from Taliban trying to intimidate pop;ulation. Only 3 locals turned up to vote out of 100,000 because of Taliban attacks on polling station in advance. Andar's security has improved since then and Taliban have disappeared. Afghan govt has opened a school. Hope is that pop will support Afghan govt rather than Taliban. Night raids used almost entirely, but Afghan govt wants these to stop, because a disgrace to people's dignity, may do more harm than good. McCrystal restricted night raids for conventinonal troops but 6x the tempo for special operators, and trained Afghan forces to do same, doing call out in local language.
Second session [may or may not leave a gap in notes]
military announced successful strike on vehicle with key militant, but local police filmed recovery and found civilians killed in election convoy. US declared strike surgical and legitimate -- but did not exclude civilian deaths. Evidence suggests civilians travelled in 6 vehicles with police escort, and election poster scraps still present at crash site. Afghan analysts research indicates alleged militant was a leader who was campaigning openly in civil election. Petraeus asserts properly identified, very precise intelligence. Officials say target led a double life. On the other hand, Michael Semple, Harvard researcher, says he has checked him out and target is still alive.
Disffected US civilian officer says enemy commanders can quickly be replaced, feels effort is futile
Taliban eulogist argues his son will replace him in the ranks
Reintegration metric? Petraeus says Taliban defectors to government side under 1,000, but are a sign of growing success
Kill /capture only part of COIN campaign that is starting to roll back Taliban, in some areas -- Petraeus
level of violence metric? Violence grows to peak, but should reduce as enemy suffer attrition. Abdul Aziz leader defected but claims unpaid and received poorly. When notified of Taliban held in a house, he talks to home owner privtely but on open mike and lets him know if war swings back, he will leave infidels and rejoin Taliban. Mohammad Yunis, young Taliban leader who rose when others killed by US, when asked if Taliban is ready to negotiate, claims will continue to fight, -- and will only talk when US leaves and Afghans compensated for losses. Newer leaders are more extreme, but also less experienced and sloppier -- Nagl.
Some troops agree, Afghan government not ready to take over. Mohammad Yunis claims will take revenge not only locally but also in other countries.
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Revolution in Cairo, PBS Frontline 2011
Charles Sennott, reporter for Frontline
Interviews with Wolman, Wired magazine reporterApril 6 Youth Movement meeting in Cairo, protest fuelled by internet.
Images and video of torture and sodomizing , screaming – violence of police.Protests broken up by police, killed 4 and beat many others.
60% of pop under 30, many unemployed.
Leader tortured because of Facebook, asked about friend on FB and did not understand there was no password and the friend he did not know in real life. When released Maher became everyman hero.Inspired by Serbian student movement, Otpor (Resistance), that toppled Milosevic. Internet spread ideas and tactics.
Serbian example of nonviolence showed nonviolence was better, violence would be topped by violent police.Tunisia broke, Ben Ali stepped down amid protests – news spread by SMS, twitter and FB, spread call for action in Egypt.
Leaders had no idea if physical rally would attract few or many.28 Jan 2011 plan to walk from mosques to square but at dawn police move in. March after beatings is named Day of Rage.
Huge rally emerged in Cairo; peaceful tactics, hugged police and held hands up, moved to Tahrir Sq.
In subsequent protests, police beat leaders and tell them to go to FB for help.
When crowd prays, police show respect by turning backs to face east also. Violence soon resumes.After 18 days, Hosni Mubarak resigned. Ahmed Maher during cleanup speaks up for popular rights.
Without news, rumors spread. Purchased satellite TV to find out what was going on – see NDP HQ burn. Police withdrawn and army takes place on streets, protesters expect army on their side. Hoping to protect protesters sleeping in streets.
Will need alliance with army. When Mubarak unwilling to leave power, take to streets again. On streets, leaders arrested.
Protests spread across Middle East (e.g. to Bahrain, Jordan, Iran, & Libya).
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Martin Gaviria and Martin
Smith, Obama's War, PBS Frontline (2009)
Introduction by Jeremy Lewis
In summer 2009, the Obama administration developed a new Counter-insurgency strategy (COIN) which required a surge of troops in southern (Helmand province) and eastern Afghanistan (Kabul and in the mountains) and Waziristan (over the border in west Pakistan). With strategic interviews of leading participants, and tactical footage from an embedded crew, we are able to get a sense of the complexity of the war.
Was the war strategy right for each subtheater:
Helmand? Kabul? Eastern Afghanistan? Waziristan?
Was COIN the right strategy for the war?
Could a COIN strategy succeed without a reputable national government -- or even a sense of nation?
What were the political risks of adopting the new strategy?
Could the US succeed where previous imperial powers had all failed?
Did the documentary successfully predict a long war?
[Jon & Mike, reporters spring 2013]
Notes on last section of Obama's War, PBS Frontline Video
Notes by RD Trace Zarr, April 15, 2013
The United States continue to pour billions of dollars into Pakistan in hopes of working to combat terrorism.
In the recent Afghan elections, Dr. Abdullah Abdullah ran against Karzai; but the election results were a product of fraud.
Are more troops the answer in Afghanistan? Or should we travel to Pakistan instead. Violent Islamism will not go away. We are just trying to suppress terrorist organizations from making it a training ground.
This is a necessary war. In a globalized world, they have the ability
to harm us. America cannot afford to lose this war.
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