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Lecture Notes

revised 10 Feb. 2011 by Jeremy Lewis:


Introduction to McCormick's book: do US values drive foreign policy?
Concepts in McCormick, Ch. 1, US Values and Beliefs
Concepts in McCormick, Ch. 2, America's Global Involvement & the Emergence of the Cold War
Concepts in McCormick, Ch. 3, Cold War Consensus and Challenges to it
Foreign Policy of US presidents
Concepts in McCormick, Ch. 4, American Foreign Policy After Vietnam
Concepts in McCormick, Ch. 5: Foreign Policy after the Cold War: The Bush and Clinton Administrations
Concepts in McCormick Ch. 10: Military and Intelligence Bureaucracies
Constitutional language on Foreign Policy
Strategic Concepts: a Primer
Grotius's theory of international law
Korea, a Briefing



Introduction

McCormick's theme: Values and Beliefs as central to US foreign policy.
Political culture of US:

foreign policy goals
  • class suggested: dominance? preeminence?  hegemony?
  • security and protection
  • [class did not suggest human rights]


  • Concepts of McCormick 1: The US Tradition
  • US Values and beliefs
  • personal freedom, equality of opportunity
  • foreign policy subservient to interests of domestic policy and domestic values
  • Washington's Farewell address
  • isolationism versus engagement
  • tendency to isolationism unless a moral excuse for involvement
  • engagement abroad only in short term, on moral imperative, and for a short, sharp war
  • No US alliances 1778-1942
  • Monroe Doctrine and Western hemisphere of influence
  • Moral principle in US wars?
  • 1812, 1898, 1916, 1941
  • “Wilsonian Idealism” and 14 points, 1919
  • [But consider current test, "Iraqi Freedom" war 2003:
  • moral cause of spreading democracy and reducing the threat to US
  • stabilizing middle east
  • Kantian peace (through democracy)]


  • Concepts of McCormick 2: America's Global Involvement & the Emergence of the Cold War
  • US rise to Globalism because
  • ideological challenge from the Soviet Union
  • regional powers of Europe were defeated and bankrupt
  • colonies of Europeans were demanding independence
  • US sole possessor of atomic bomb
  • WW2 strategy included total defeat and disarming of adversaries
  • new strategy postwar:
  • global collective security
  • four policemen
  • Yalta agreement
  • zones of occupation in Germany
  • Eastern Europe divided
  • veto mechanism within the Security Council of the United Nations
  • Potsdam Conference in 1945
  • [Class discussion: BUT is the US exceptional? Or is it behaving the same but with more uplifting moral rhetoric?
  • idealism versus realism
  • traditional goals abroad
  • security and protection
  • controlling land (sovereignty)
  • economic trade
  • spreading own culture and political system
  • power and glory
  • relative goals
  • Would US behave differently than Euro colonial powers?
  • What if: in future, basic needs in short supply?
  • water, oil, land in certain areas, votes in the UN]
  • Containment of the USSR strategy
  • causes:
  • Stalin's provocative speeches about capitalism causing wars
  • Kennan's "long telegram" to Truman
  • Soviet behavior shaped by ideology, not realism
  • Politico-military alliances:
  • Rio pact, NATO, SEATO, CENTO + bilateral
  • Marshall Plan for W. Europe
  • Truman's Four Point Plan: global, but under-funded by Congress
  • Mutual Security concept (replaced civil aid of 4 point plan)
  • NSC 68: military rebuilt on large scale
  • paradox: US abandoned isolationism -- but unilaterally
  • Korean war, 1950-52, ending in stalemate with CHina
  • clarified US foreign policy
  • remilitarization of US

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    Concepts of McCormick 3: Cold War Consensus and Challenges to it



    1960s Challenges to Cold War consensus:

  • World became multipolar rather than bipolar
  • US domestic debate became acute during Vietnam war
  • Sino-Soviet split could be exploited
  • Uprisings in Hungary, E. Germany, Poland
  • European common market developing pluralism of foreign policy views
  • De Gaulle made official visits to USSR
  • DG proposed 3 power directorate of NATO
  • withdrew from NATO command structure
  • 90 nations decolonized by Europeans
  • Cuban missile crisis
  • MAD became a reality
  • Vietnam war
  • Gulf of Tonkin resolution,
  • escalation of Vietnam war
  • Vietnamization after 1968
  • fall of Saigon 1975
  • Conclusion: Post-Vietnam war, US consensus shattered, foreign policy vacuum

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    Concepts of McCormick Ch. 4: American Foreign Policy After Vietnam

    Foreign Policy of US presidents

    Realist model:
    nation states vie for distribution of power
    relations among states must be managed
    Idealist model:
    many actors, values shape policy
    global economic and social conditions shape policy
    Nixon as a realist, with Kissinger Carter as an Idealist
    [to rehab US foreign policy after VN]
    good domestic values
    shift US focus away from Soviets
    global human rights promotion
  • problems where offenders were US allies, friction in relations
  • problems of definitions
  • Resolving third world conflicts
  • great success for Carter
  • personal influence of missionary, Miz' Lilllian Carter
  • Camp David Accords and Nobel Peace Prize
  • Panama canal Treaty, Africa and China
  • Realism in final year, 1980
  • Soviet invasion of Afghan [ > sanctions]
  • Iranians took US hostages [ > sanctions, created Delta Force, 2 rescue attempts, negotiated release of hostages]
  • [Created Rapid Deployment Force, established Carter doctrine; increased military budget above inflation]
  • [supported stealth bomber over older technology]
  • Reagan as realist [despite his idealistic rhetoric, uplifting tone?]
  • goals:
  • expand military forces
  • re-focus on Soviet Union
  • reinvigorate allies
  • military buildup in first term
  • [more aggressive rhetoric, evil empire]
  • some tensions with other countries
  • Summits with soviets in second term, once Gorbachev became leader.
  • Geneva, Reykyavik
  • INF Treaty
  • START
  • Reagan doctrine
  • Assisting freedom fighters around world, including in central America, southwest Africa & Afghanistan
  • 1984-5, then 1986-7, Iran-contra scandal (tensions with Congress)
  • Policy in third world
  • Aquino in Philippines
  • dialogue with PLO
  • opposition to apartheid
  • Conclusion:
    Reagan sought to restore global focus, in first term developing forces and confronting Soviet Union around world -- but in second term using diplomacy and obtaining INF agreement
    Nixon and Carter sought to replace global focus with regional foci


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    Concepts of Ch. 5, Foreign Policy after the Cold War: The Bush and Clinton Administrations

    Continuity expected: Bush [41] no desire for change in foreign policy in 1989
    pragmatic and prudent by nature
    had been VP, DCI, amb. to UN, rep. to China
    like Nixon, Kiss. and Ford, sought relations with strong states
    excellent foreign policy team
    But external shocks, 1989:
    Collapse of Soviet empire was a surprise
    emergence of democracy and markets in Eastern Europe
    reunification of Germany
    in sum, the end of the cold war
    1990-91 Kuwait crisis and Persian Gulf war (1)
    huge diplomatic success
    complete the START II process
    integrate new Russia into world
    complete nuclear test limits
    free up immigration-trade blockage
    Russia acknowledged by G7, as summit observer
    Pragmatism elsewhere
    China, despite human rights violations
    "new world order"
    Clinton: pragmatic continuity with Bush (41)
    NAFTA and WTO (replaces GATT)
    [executives to China to expand trade]
    [NATO expansion and enlargement]
    multilateral diplomacy (waiting for NATO in Serbia)
    selective engagement (issues of Somalia 1993, and then Rwanda)


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    Constitutional language on Foreign Policy

    "Article I, Section 8.

    ...

    Art. 1, Section 9.



    Concepts in McCormick Ch. 10: Military and Intelligence Bureaucracies

    "military-industrial complex"

    C. Wright Mills's The Power Elite
    phrase developed in popular discussions, late 1950s
    Eisenhower's Farewell Address, 1961
    May not initiate a war, but interests support and maintain a war
    Often seen as significant in the maintenance of the long Vietnam war
    Military entities in foreign policy
    SecDef
  • Rumsfeld as an example, Afghan and Iraq
  • high tech but fewer boots on ground
  • wartime favors SecDef, and so does close relationship with President
  • Rumsfeld had consolidated powerful positions in hands of neoconservative deputies
  • VP Richard Cheney exceptionally supportive of SecDef in GWOT under W. Bush
  • Also significant: Robert McNamara, introduced PPBS, escalated and then turned against Vietnam war
  • other SecDefs less influential
  • OJCS
  • Goldwater-Nichols Act 1986: jointness and unified command
  • more joint now, stronger chairman
  • reorganization into regional commands
  • less favored by Presidents
  • Intelligence community (17)
  • CIA best known, set up after Pearl Harbor, 1947
  • NSA largest
  • services intelligence
  • DIA (purple)
  • NRO, NGA
  • Treasury, FBI, etc. -- civilian agencies
  • DHS reorganization, post 9/11, includes DEA
  • NCTC
  • Criticisms
  • Marchetti and Marks, CIA and Cult of Intelligence
  • Church Report 1974-75
  • plausible deniability
  • intelligence failures
  • "blowback" from covert ops
  • general trends analyzed
  • but particular events and their timing often a surprise
  • 2011 issues: scrub and analyze social media? Open Source Center
  • Hughes-Ryan amendment: notification of covert ops in timely fashion of a presidential finding to intel ctees


  • Strategic Concepts: a Primer

    Useful for PSC 307 Students reading Dye's chapter on Defense Policy
    essential for PSC 303 students' introduction to international relations



    For PSC 307, Dye's text on Defense policy leaves out some concepts that are necessary to understanding the choices made by the US in defense reviews.

    Clausewitz's dictum: war is an extension of politics, resolving conflicts by other means.
  • War to be fought on a rational basis, limited to rational goals.
  • Levels of analysis:
  • grand strategy
  • strategy
  • operations
  • tactics
  • Actors in world anarchical society
  • Nation states
  • superpower vs hyperpower
  • regional powers
  • imperial overstretch
  • supranational organizations
  • empires and colonies
  • spheres of influence:
  • Western Hemisphere (the Americas)
  • Monroe doctrine covered Latin America
  • alliances such as NATO and Warsaw Pact
  • international law: treaties and executive agreements, plus customary law.
  • clash of civilizations
  • Non Governmental Organizations, both peaceful and deadly
  • Forces needed are a result of our strategy
  • Top down QDR:
  • Strategy serves grand strategy
  • operational planning serves strategy
  • tactics serve operational plans
  • Nuclear weapons and triad
  • Conventional forces
  • reduced by alliance partners filling in gaps
  • US carries heavier burden of alliance leader, hyperpower.
  • 1 and half ocean naval war, win-hold-win land war.
  • drawdown of forces in 1990s across West, especially of cold war forces.

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    Grotius's theory of international law
    from Curtis (ed) vol 2, pp.301 ff.

    At the time (late 16th century)

    the French Politiques, distressed by the wars of reformation, were considering sovereignty of states, and
    others were considering divine right of kings,
    Grotius (1583-1645) in the Netherlands considered whether there can be international law and a community of nations
  • Grotius, the Rights of War and Peace
  • official historian when very young, chief magistrate
  • wrote in exile in France when his Republican party was persecuted
  • states are compelled by trade and by self preservation to make pacts and contracts
  • natural law is the law of reason
  • there is also the law of nations
  • wars may occur because of the lack of superior government
  • wars may only be fought to uphold rights and contracts
  • wars must be limited by international law
  • wars and disputes could be settled by conferences, arbitration and lot.
  • Rights of War and Peace
  • Carneades proposed men like animals self-interested, hence no natural law, only law of interests
  • But man is a superior form of animal, and social -- not just self-interested
  • some animals do restrain themselves for group
  • considers divine law versus law of humans, argues for law of humans
  • Carneades limited law of nature and countries
  • but there is law among states
  • Carneades ridiculed justice as folly
  • but a national obeys laws in own country and sacrifices own interest to do so
  • a state which transgresses laws of nature and of nations cuts away also the bulwarks of its own security.
  • even without sanctions, law has effects: justice brings peace of conscience and the common agreement of good men [Republican view]
  • all states at some time need support
  • law binds many nations together
  • proof of law is found in unbroken customs and the testimony of those skilled

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    Korea, a Briefing

    Questions about current affairs in the Koreas, Feb 2011

    Maps
    Maps of Korean peninsula | HiRes | LKL's Korean war map
    Country briefing, atlas and encyclopedia data
     The Economist, "The World In Figures: South Korea," Nov. 2010
     The Economist, leaders and articles on North Korea, 2010-11
     CIA World Factbook: Korea, South (Atlas-type database)
     CIA World Factbook: Korea, North (Atlas-type database)
     Wikipedia entry on South Korea (true to form, this is one of the more carefully researched and written entries)
    Trade issues
    Economics Analysis of US-South Korean relations from Dr. Cinzia Balit-Moussalli, Huntingdon College, 31 Jan 2011
    Recent news
    "Sailors free after SKorea launches ‘high-tech’ raid," Myanmar Times, Jan.31-Feb.6, 2011 [Counter-piracy assault succeeds off Somalia]
    Reuters, "Satellite images support North Korea reactor claim," 19 Nov. 2010
    J.J. Sutherland, "Images Show North Korea Building New Nuclear Reactor," NPR, 19 Nov. 2010 | Satellite image, annotated
    "North Korea-- 2010 Overseas Diplomatic Directory for Europe and Central Asia," US Open Source Center, December 29, 2010 (at FAS).
    Korean conflict, 50th anniversary
    US DOD, 50th Anniversary of Korean War, site | Global Security: Summary of  the Korean War, 1950-53 |
    Learn Korean Language site, Korean war timeline & map
    Images of Korea
    GlobalSecurity.org: Night images contrasting lit up South with dark North
    Travel-images: South Korea | North Korea | FotoSearch | Life in Korea | Flickr | Cheju Island resort (spectacular)


    President Obama's State of the Union Message, Jan. 2011, extract:

    "      Let’s also remember that after parents, the biggest impact on a child’s success comes from the man or woman at the front of the classroom.  In South Korea, teachers are known as “nation builders.”  Here in America, it’s time we treated the people who educate our children with the same level of respect.  (Applause.)  We want to reward good teachers and stop making excuses for bad ones.  (Applause.)  And over the next 10 years, with so many baby boomers retiring from our classrooms, we want to prepare 100,000 new teachers in the fields of science and technology and engineering and math.  (Applause.)"


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