Political Science at Huntingdon College
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PSC 314: Constitutional law and Political Theory

Michael Curtis (ed) The Great Political Theories, expanded edition

Student Outlines, Vol. I | More | Vol. II

Compiled from student contributions (thanks) by Jeremy Lewis revised 19 Oct. '09


Jeremy Bentham
Edmund Burke
Elitists:Pareto
Adolf Hitler
Thomas Hobbes: see Vol 1 Notes
Immanuel Kant
John Locke: see Vol. 1 notes
Harold Laski
Vladimir Illyich Ulyanov, "Lenin"
Karl Marx
James Mill | John Stuart Mill
Fred. Nietzsche
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Thomas Paine
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Joseph Schumpeter
Adam Smith
Herbert Spencer
Lev Bronstein, "Leon Trotsky"
Utilitarians
Max Weber





Edmund Burke
By: Steven Witt (Fall 2005)
Edmund Burke, the oracle for all right-wing politicians.
The Danger of Abstract Theory
Burke states that circumstances are what render every civil and political scheme beneficial or noxious to mankind. We need to suspend judgment on issues until the "dust" settles so to speak. However, a state without the means of some change is without the means of its conservation.

The Conservative Approach
Burke states that the idea of the fabrication of new government is absolutely disgusting as we derive all that we possess as an inheritance from our forefathers. Therefore, everything made hereafter, should be formed upon analogical precedent. People will not look forward to posterity, who never look backward to their ancestors. Therefore, improvements in government are never new nor are retentions ever obsolete. 

The Need for Aristocratic Rule
Burke states that everything ought to be open, but not indifferently to every man. The road to eminence and power should not be made too easy or too short. Therefore, only few will actually make it. Naturally, the wealthy aristocrats obtain possessions passed down from inheritance and understand this concept, in turn they are able to apply it to government.

The Rights of Men
Burke states that whatever each man can separately do, without trespassing upon others, he has a right to do for himself, and he has a right to a fair portion of all which society, with all its combinations of skill and force, can do in his favor. However, in this partnership all men have equal rights, but not to equal things. Government is not made in the virtue of natural rights.

The Virtues of the British Constitution
Burke states that prejudice is of ready application in the emergency. It previously engages the mind in a steady course of wisdom and virtue, and does not leave the man hesitating in the moment of decision, skeptical, puzzled, and unresolved. Prejudice renders a man’s virtue his habit and not a series of unconnected acts. Through just prejudice, his duty becomes a part of his nature.

Religion and the State
Burke states that religion is the basis of civil society, and the source of all good and of all comfort. All persons possessing any portion of power should be strongly and awfully impressed with an idea that they act in trust to one great Master.

The Wisdom of the Past
Burke states that destroying the whole original fabric of society leaves those who come after, a ruin instead of a habitation. He said society is to be a contract. Each contract is to link the lower with the higher natures, connecting the visible and invisible world, according to a fixed compact sanctioned by the inviolable oath which holds all physical and all moral natures in their appointed place. Ultimately, the means taught by experience are better suited to political ends than those contrived in the original project.

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Edmund Burke 
Sierra R. Turner. 2004

Circumstances are what render every civil and political scheme beneficial or noxious to mankind.

A state without the means of some change is without the means of its conservation. Without such means it might even risk the loss of the part of the constitution which it wished the most religiously to preserve. 

The two principles of conservation and correction operated strongly at two critical periods of the Restoration and Revolution, when England found itself without a king. During both of these periods the nation had lost the bound of union in their ancient edifice; they did not, however, dissolve the whole fabric. 

Burke did not believe in anything like abstract moral codes or rights. Things are right or wrong only in relation to other things. He was skeptical of the overweening faith placed in human reason, which was a large part of why he was hostile toward abstract ideas and the belief in natural laws. Such abstract ideas, Burke believed, would always be too simple to fit the facts of the "real world." 

As mentioned above, Burke was convinced that all rights and all morality were purely matters of convention rather than arising from nature. While he strongly believed that some social conventions are inviolable, he would never consider them inviolable because they were natural. These conventions that govern the workings of society arise from our habits and the arrangements that have made a particular group of people into a civil society. Sabine notes that for Burke, "a people is an organized group; it has a history and institutions, customary ways of acting, habitual pieties and loyalties and authorities. [It is a] true politic personality."

Burke is considered - with good reason - the founder of a self-conscious political conservatism. While conservatism certainly existed before Burke, he is the founder of a conservative philosophy. His conservatism can be summarized by the following beliefs: 
a. a respect for the wisdom of established institutions, especially religion and property;
b. a strong sense of continuity in the community's historical changes;
c. a belief in the relative impotence of individual will and reason to deflect the community from its course;
d. a deep moral satisfaction in the loyalty that attaches community members to their stations in its various ranks.

Government is not made in virtue of natural rights, which may and do exist in total independence of it; and exist in much greater clearness, and in a much greater degree of abstract perfection: but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. 

The nature of man is intricate; the objects of society are of the greatest possible complexity: and therefore no simple disposition or direction of power can be suitable either to a man’s nature, or to the quality of his affairs. 

Religion is the basis of civil society, and the source of all good and of all comfort. 

The consecration of the state, by a state religious establishment, is necessary also to operate with a wholesome awe upon free citizens; because in order to secure their freedom, they must enjoy some determinate portion of power. 

Edmund Burke from Curtis v2 
Larry McLemore, 2001

Edmund Burke, a British political philosopher of the 18th century, is still regarded as the leading apologist for political conservatism. 

       Reflections on the Revolution in France
The Danger of Abstract Theory
Those who govern should revere precedent even as they make changes. To completely fashion our government to a new theory would be to apply an abstraction.  The test of time would reveal the flaws in such a theory.  We should strike a balance between conserving old theories of government and creating new ones. 

The Conservative Approach 
Our government is an inheritance from our forefathers.   We must revere precedent and consider the political institutions formed by our predecessors as an entailed inheritance.  Without looking backward to our ancestors, we cannot effectively look forward to the future.  Thus, when we improve government it is neither totally new nor obsolete. 

The Need for Aristocratic Rule 
In a free society, everything ought to be open, but not to every man.  The road to power and prominence must not be too easy or be traveled too quickly.  Generally, aristocrats are best suited to govern.  They have acquired possessions and the power that attends them over a course of time.  In fact, the experience of preserving individual wealth has helped to preserve society.  It is dangerous for the masses to have much power because they lack the experience in dealing with it. 

The Rights of Man 
All men have equal rights but not to equal things.  If civil society is made for the advantage of men, then men have a right to all of the rights created in it.  Law is a gift that acts through a rule.  Men then have a right to live according to that rule--they have a right to do justice between themselves and others; a right to enjoy the fruits of their labor, to give and receive inheritances, and nurture their offspring.  Natural rights are not a creation of government; they exist independent of government.  Because these rights are abstract, they cannot be imposed as a practical matter.  By claiming a right to everything, men claim no real rights. 

The Virtues of the British Constitution 
Because the British people are reluctant to change, our government retains the stamp of our forefathers.  We do not have a faith in the reason of a few individuals but in the reasoned judgment of men that has accumulated through the centuries of British rule. The monarchy, the parliament, the ministers of law and the Church are all revered as a part of this collective wisdom. 

Religion and the State 
Civil society is based on religion.  All good and comfort are derived from religion.  Atheism is against our reason.  We hold fast to our religion.  At the same time we understand that the other establishments are necessary in the degree that they exist--Church, monarchy, aristocracy and democracy.  Religion is the basis of society, and the British idea is that we hold political power in trust and are answerable God for our actions in that position of trust. 

The Wisdom of the Past 
If we were to change government as often as the fashion changes, we would lose the continuity that is so important to maintaining the reason of government.  Society is not a partnership that can be dissolved at the whim of any partner.  It is a contract--but it is a contract with past and future generations, as well as the present generation.  When generations and generations have cautiously constructed and adjusted government to make it workable, we should respect that government.  By forming government in this way, it is not based on any particular theory.  Rather, theories are formed by generations of government. 

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Thomas Paine
Ben Cheney, Fall 2009

• Life & Times
o 1737-1809
o Born in England, emigrated to US at 37 in 1774
o Participated in American Revolution through writings
o Aided in French Revolution, arrested by Robespierre
o Died in 1809, unpopular due to political and religious views
• Should we accept the rules and government set by past generations?
o Believed that thirst for power was the disease of monarchy
o Each institution that does not benefit the nation is illegitimate — especially the Monarchy, the Nobility, and the Military.
• Do men have natural rights -- and if so, what are they?
o All men are created equal
o Slavery opposition/civil rights
o Representation
o Liberty, property and security
• Do we have a right to rebel against the government?
o Revolution is permissible
o Government is inessential 
o Natural right to representation


Thomas Paine
Todd Adams, Fall 2008

Rights of Man (1791) argues that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard its people, their natural rights, and their national interests. It defends the French Revolution against Edmund Burke's anti-democratic attack upon popular government in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790).
The publication of Rights of Man caused a furor in England. Paine was tried in absentia, and convicted for seditious libel against the crown, but was unavailable for hanging, having departed England for France.

Rights of the Living

• Paine opposes the idea of hereditary government & the belief that dictatorial government is necessary, because of Man's corrupt nature
• Denounces Burke’s assertion of the nobility's inherent hereditary wisdom; countering the implication that a nation has not a right to form a Government for governing itself
• Paine refutes Burke's definition of government as "a contrivance of human wisdom.” Instead, Paine argues that Government is a contrivance of Man, and it follows that hereditary succession and hereditary rights to govern cannot compose a Government since the wisdom to govern cannot be inherited
Natural Rights
• Every generation is equal in rights to the generations which proceeded it; every individual is born equal in rights with his contemporary
• Human rights originate in Nature, thus, rights cannot be granted via political charter, because that would imply that rights are legally revocable, and instead would be privileges
Society and Government
• Society performs for itself almost everything which is ascribed to Government
• Government's sole purpose is safeguarding the individual and his/her inherent, inalienable rights; each societal institution that does not benefit the nation is illegitimate
• The more perfect civilization is, the less occasion it has for Government
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Thomas Paine
by Mark Colson, Fall 2006
  • Introduction
  • Thomas Paine, a deist pamphleteer, was born in England on January 29, 1737. His early life seemed to be filled with failure. He failed from school, from his job with his father and from being a seaman. He then met Benjamin Franklin who convinced him to immigrate to America. He lived in Philadelphia where he wrote two of his famous pamphlets, Common Sense and Crisis. Two other notable writings included The Rights of Man and The Age of Reason. Thomas Paine was very influential and inspiring in the American and French Revolutions. Although later shunned for his religious views, Paine’s writings helped to form some of the most important principles that the United States was found upon.  II. Paine’s Views 
    1. Natural Rights and Civil Liberties
      1. Paine believed that all men are created equal and that every person is granted the same rights as those before them. 
      2. Believed that politics are essentially simple
      3. Believed in a set of principles as universal truth and that civil rights are derived from ones natural rights. 
      4. Very opposed to slavery
      5. Opposed the death penalty
    1. Role of Government and Society
      1. Paine was very much against hereditary monarchy. 
      2. Representative government would replace aristocracy and divine right.
      3. Paine believed that government should aide society only in promoting the natural rights of liberty, property, security and preventing oppression. 
      4. Proponent of social security, free public education and minimum wage
    III. Pamphlets
    A. Common Sense 
    This pamphlet was a major influence in the American Revolution and was one of the first writings to call for American independence from England. This writing helped to inspire many, such as George Washington, to join forces in a rebellion against British oppression. 
    1. Crisis 
    Crisis was written during the Revolutionary War were it achieved its written purpose of inspiring and motivating American leaders and troops. George Washington thought so much of it, he ordered his troops to read it. 
    C. Rights of Man
    This pamphlet was written after Paine returned to England in support of the French Revolution. Because Paine criticized the British monarchy in it, he had to flee to France.
    D. The Age of Reason
    Paine wrote this just before his imprisonment in France. It has been called the "anti church text." In this writing Paine expresses his deist beliefs. He claims that religion and organized churches are all man made. He goes on to say that salvation through the death of Jesus Christ, and the Bible are all "fabulous inventions" by man and are a disgrace to the real Almighty God.
    IV. Conclusion

    Thomas Paine died a lonely death on June 8, 1809 in New York City. Because of religious views he was disregarded as an important figure, but because of his significant writings, his name is imprinted in history. 

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    Thomas Paine
    by Rachel Nixon, Fall 2005
    * Wrote Common Sense
    * Considered to be the clarion call to Americans who were hesitating on the threshold of independence
    * Felt that politics was essentially simple
    * Believed  that with basic politics the monarchy (which he viewed as the enemy and the source of misery) would be abolished
    * As a result of this abolition Paine believed that sovereignty would be restored to its natural and original place.
    * Also believed that a representative government for the people would replace hereditary monarchy and aristocracy.
    * As a result of supporting the revolution, Paine received an election to the National Assembly.
    * He opposed the king’s execution and extremist polices resulting in him spending time in prison and a narrow escape of the guillotine.

    (The Rights of Man)
    1. The rights of the Living
    * Wrote “The vanity and presumption of governing beyond the grave is the most ridiculous and insolent of all tyrannies.  Man has no property in man; neither has any generation a property in the generations which are to follow…the people of the present day have {no right} to dispose of, bind  or control those who are to live a hundred or a thousand years hence.  (Parliament of 1688 had no right to control the people).  Every generation is, must be, competent to all the purposes which its occasions require.  It is the living not the dead, that are to be accommodated.”
    * “I am contending for the rights of the living against their being willed away by the manuscript-assumed authority of the dead; and Mr. Edmund Burke is contending the authority of the dead over the rights and freedom of the living…What possible obligation, then, can exist between them; what rule or principle can be laid down that of two nonentities.”
    * Wanted to Mr. Burke to prove “the right of any human power to bind posterity (people in the future, all descendants) forever. 

    2. Natural Rights
    * “Every generation is equal in rights to the generations which preceded it, by the same rule that every individual is born equal in equal rights with his contemporaries.”

    3. Society and Government
    * “…Society performs for itself almost everything which is ascribed to Government.”
    * Believed that the only need for government is to aide in the cases in which the people are “not conveniently competent.” 
    * Believed that from man’s natural rights flowed his civil rights (can not be carried out by the individual alone i.e. security and protection).
    * Although Paine voiced that he believed in simple politics, it is evident that a small fraction of anarchism existed within him.
    * In a nut shell Paine believed that the more civilized that people were the less there was a need for government.

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    Thomas Paine (1737-1809) "The Rights of Man"
    by Steven Witt, 2004

    Biography
            Thomas Paine came from a lower class family and was given a short basic
    education. He was an unsuccessful young man until he met Benjamin Franklin. Franklin
    advised him to emigrate to America. After establishing himself in America, Paine
    observed that a revolution was taking place. America was on the verge of
    Independence. Paine became very interested in the revolution and formulated ideas in
    his famous pamphlet Common Sense. This pamphlet had an eminent role in the American
    Revolution and in the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Among this, Paine
    wrote three more literary works on his ideas of government. Crisis, The Rights of
    Man, and The Age of Reason also played significant roles in the French and American
    Revolutions. 

    The Rights of the Living
            No man has the right or power to control another man. Every age, race, and
    generation is to be as free as its predecessors. The generation of today needs to be
    content with its needs and not with the needs of their predecessors. Thomas Paine
    once said, “It is the living, and not the dead, that are to be accommodated.” Laws
    that proceed to pass through generations are not just allowed through because they
    are not able to be repealed, but because of the consent of the living. The living
    chooses to allow these laws to remain because they are still content with them.

    Natural Rights
            All men regardless of race and origin of birth are created equal with equal
    natural rights. Everyone has the given option to share their rights in society and
    in doing so better secure them. A man’s natural rights are the foundation to his
    civil rights. Natural rights are what make up a man’s existence and therefore are on
    the basis of the intellectual side. They do not directly affect the natural rights
    of others. 

    Society and Government
            No man can satisfy his wants or needs without society. Without social
    affections, a man can remain in existence but never happy. We were all born into
    society and will remain there until our days end. It is easy to infer that the idea
    of having a Government is basically pointless. Everything that a Government is
    designed to accommodate has been preformed by the common consent of society. Society
    works in such a way that even if a problem surfaced, it would not take long for
    society itself to take care of it, leaving a Government rendered useless.

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    Thomas Paine
    Sierra R. Turner, 2004

    The Rights of the Living
    Thomas Paine believed that the Parliament of the people of 1688, or of any other period, had no more right to dispose of the people of the present day, or to bind or to controul them in any shape whatever, than the Parliament or the people of the present day have to dispose of, bind or controul those who are to live a hundred or a thousand years hence. 

    Every generation is, and must be, competent to all the purposes which its occasions require. It is the living, and not the dead, that are to be accommodated. 

    Thomas Paine argued for rights of the living against their being willed away by the manuscript assumed authority of the dead while Edmund Burke contended for the authority of the dead over the rights of the dead over the rights and freedom of the living.

    Natural Rights
    Every generation is equal in rights to the generations which preceded it, by the same rule that every individual is born equal in rights with his contemporary. 

    A man’s natural rights foundation for all his civil rights…

    Paine defines natural rights as being those which are appertain to man in rights of his existence. Of this kind are all the intellectual rights, or rights of the mind, and also those rights of acting as individual for his own comfort and happiness, which are not injurious to the natural rights of others. 

    Society and Government
    Society performs for itself almost everything which is ascribed to Government. 

    Government is no farther necessary than to supply the few cases to which society and civilization are not conveniently competent; and instances are not wanting to show, that everything which Government can usefully add thereto, has been performed by the common consent of society, without Government…..

    Formal Government makes but a small part of civilized life; and when even the best that human wisdom can devise is established, it is a thing more in name and idea than in fact.

    The more perfect civilization is, the less occasion it has for Government, because the more it does regulate its own affairs, and govern itself; but so contrary is the practice of old Governments to the reason of the case, that the expences of them increase in the proportion they ought to diminish. 

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    Thomas Paine
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003

    -Thomas Paine, the gifted journalist who’s Common Sense had acted as a clarion call to Americans hesitating on the threshold of independence, leapt to the defense of the French Revolution in The Rights of Man of 1791, dedicated to an unwilling George Washington.

    -argued for the right of the nation to do what it chose to do

    -Every generation was equal in rights to the generations which preceded it, in the same way that every individual was
    born in equal rights with his contemporaries- the natural rights which all men have formed the basis of civil rights.

    -The Rights of Living

    -I am contending for the rights of the living and against their being willed away, and controlled and contracted for, by the
    manuscript assumed authority of the dead.

    -Natural Rights

    -Man did not enter into society to become worse than he was before, not to have fewer rights than he had before, but to
    have those rights better secured.

    -Natural rights are those which appertain to man in right of his existence.

    -The natural rights which retain are all those in which power to execute it as perfect in the individual as the right itself.

    -Society and Government

    -No one man is capable, without the aid of society, of supplying his own wants; and those wants, acting upon every
    individual, impel the whole of them into society, as naturally as gravitation acts to centre.

    -Formal government makes but a small part of civilized life; and when even the best that human wisdom can devise is
    established, it is a thing more in name and idea than in fact.

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    Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
    by Jennie Pratt, 2001

    Biography
    • -lower class family
    • -formal education included reading, writing and arithmetic
    • -various unsuccessful jobs
    • -married twice, divorced twice
    • -met Ben Franklin who advised him to seek better life in AMERICA
    • -wrote four literary works
    •  -Common Sense (influence on American Revolution)
    •  -Crisis (influence on American Revolution)
    •  -The Rights of Man (defense of French Revolution)
    •  -The Age of Reason (place of religion in society)
    Philosophy
    • -disagreed with divine law/right
    •   associated “governing beyond the grave” with tyranny
    •   thought it was ludicrous to favor rights of dead before living
    • -rights of current generation=rights of previous generation
    •   referred to these rights as natural rights: liberty, property and security
    •   which form the basis of civil rights
    •   all creation stories and myths agree that all men are born with the same natural rights
    • -favored representative gov’t as opposed to hereditary monarchy or aristocracy
    • -pointed out that laws continue and are not NOT changed because they can’t be changed,
    •  but because people just don’t change them
    Society/Government
    • -Natural wants> (greater than) Individual power
    •  Everyone has wants
    •  No one is capable of satisfying his/her own wants
    •  Others can help satisfy these wants
    •  Therefore society is formed
    •  Person becomes dependent on society (not for survival but contentment)
    • -Basically, no need for gov’t when we have this system we call society
    •  Formal gov’t is more a name or an idea; pointless
    • -Whether gov’t enforces laws or not, society will enforce them in the end
    Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
    by Kim Keith, 1998
    I.  Quick Background 
         A.  Born to lower class London family in 1737.
         B.  Little formal education 
         C.  At age 37, came to United States with Ben Franklin 
         D.  Published three major works: 
    Common Sense (helped inspire American Revolution) 
    The Rights of Man  (written in response to Burke) 
    The Age of Reason  (poorly received, thought to challenge the church) 
    II.  Rights of People
        A.  No generation should be linked to another 
        B.  All men were born equal with equal natural rights 
        C.  Natural rights are foundation for civil rights (rights that make us feel like a part of society) 
        D.  Rights cannot be granted, if they were they could be revoked, if they can be revoked then they are luxuries 

    III.  Role of Government 
        A.  Government not necessary if members of society can help to support one another 
        B.  The more perfect a society, the lesser need for a government 
        C.  Government should not be controlled by monarchy but by the people in the form of 
               representatives. 

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    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Sierra R. Turner, 2004
    Problem: “Find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before.” This is the reason behind the Social Contract. 

    The clauses of the Social Contract can be boiled down to one which states that “the total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in the first place, as each gives himself alone, and remain as free as before.” 

    The act of association comprises a mutual undertaking between the public and the individuals, and each individual, in making a contract, as we may say, with himself, is bound in a double capacity; as a member of the Sovereign he is bound to the individuals, and as a member of the State to the Sovereign. 

    What man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to get and succeeds in getting: what he gains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of all he possesses. 

    The first and most important deduction from the principles we have so far laid down is that the general will alone can direct the State according to the object for which it was instituted, i.e. the common good: for if the clashing of particular interests made the establishment of societies necessary, the agreement of these very interests made it possible. 

    Sovereignty can never be alienated, and that the Sovereign, who is no less than a collective being, cannot be represented except by himself: the power indeed may ne transmitted, but not the will. 

    Every service a citizen can render the State he ought to render as soon as the Sovereign demands it; but the Sovereign, for its part, cannot impose upon its subjects any fetters that are useless to the community, nor can it even wish to do so; for no more by the law of reason than by the law of nature can anything occur without a cause. 

    The social compact sets up among the citizens as equality of such kind, that they all bind themselves to observe the same conditions and should therefore all enjoy the same rights.


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    Excerpts from Adam Smith - An Inquiry in to the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) 
    By Devon Beaty, Spring 2009
    I. The Division of Labor 
    A. Human nature has the tendency to trade, barter, or exchange one item for another.
    B. On gives an item to someone who wants it in order to receive to gain what he or she wants (goods, services, or something with monetary value)
    C. Humans do not appeal to the goodness of their contemporaries to gain a specified item or service but they appeal to their contemporaries own self-interest and the advantages of giving to that person.
    D. Certain people who excel at a specific skill, sells their surplus goods or services in order to receive the goods and services that they need.
    E. Without the ability to trade or exchange, one must produce their own goods and services for the necessity of life, which would:
    1. Increases workload
    2. Diminishes innovation
    F. The most different skills are of use to everyone.
    II. Private and Public Benefit 
    A. Employment must be equal or nearing equality to prevent crowding in one industry.
    1. In a free society, every person’s interest will cause them to pick an advantageous employment, rather than disadvantageous.
    B. Anyone who is liberal with money and resources is a public enemy and anyone who is thrifty is a public benefactor. 
    1. Every extravagant or wasteful project diminishes funds for productive labor.
    2. The wastefulness of some is compensated by the thriftiness of others in a nation.
    C. Glut or expense is caused by the passion of enjoyment which generally occurs in rare and momentary occasions. 
    D. Saving and to accumulation is caused by the desire to better one’s condition and “never leaves us till we go into the grave.”
    E. Nations are never deprived by private wastefulness but is harmed by public extravagance and wastefulness.
    1. Unproductive labor that is maintained by government revenue, may consume such a great amount that the productive and thrifty individuals may not be able to compensate for the waste and deterioration of government revenue.
    F. Every individual is looking for the most advantageous employment, which leads him or her to prefer an employment that is most advantageous to society.
    G. Every individual wants to employ his or her money and resources closest to home, which support the domestic industry.
    1. Upon equal or near-equal profits a merchant naturally refers domestic-trade because he or she is accustomed to the people and the laws of the nation in which he or she can redress issues.
    a. Investing money and resources to the domestic trade increases the quantity in domestic industry, thus giving more revenue and employment to the country than foreign trade.
    2. Every individual who invests in a domestic industry directs the industry to produce the greatest possible value.
    H. Annual revenue of a nation is directly equal to the exchangeable value of the annual produce of industry
    1. Therefore, by a person supporting domestic industry he or she increases the wealth the country, not because of patriotism, but by their self-interest.
    I. Political leaders who try to direct private industry would increase unnecessary work and assume authority that no single man, council, or Senate should have. 
    1. To give a monopoly (tariffs) to and domestic market would be either useless or damaging.
    a. If a product can brought cheaply from both foreign and domestic industry than the tariff is useless.
    b. But if foreign goods are cheaper than the tariff is hurtful.
    J. If a foreign nation can produce an item more cheaply than domestic industry can, it is better to buy it, and employ resources to an industry that would be advantageous to the domestic industry.
    K. Distant or foreign employment (outsourcing) can be better for domestic industry because foreign employment may be able to produce goods essential to domestic industry more cheaply than the domestic industry can produce itself.


    Adam Smith - An Inquiry in to the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)
    Summary of the book by Todd Adams, spring 2008.  Summaries of the Curtis extracts are below.

    National wealth is the “exchangeable value of the annual produce of land and labor of a country.”

    The division of labor starts the process of economic growth and capital accumulation keeps it going.

    Three benefits of division of labor.
    1. increase in skill and dexterity
    2. save time in moving from job to job
    3. invention of new machinery

    Division of labor is dependent on the “extent of the market” and capital accumulation.

    Division of labor determines the productivity of labor

    Economic growth is also dependent on the proportion of productive to unproductive labor. Productive labor is that labor that produces tangible goods that have value in exchange. Unproductive labor is not useless; it just does not produce tangible goods to be exchanged.

    Smith focuses on value in exchange. Smith has 4 “prices”
    1. “Real” price is the real value of a good determined by the “toil and trouble of acquiring it.” It “consists of the necessaries and conveniences of live which are given for it.” In rudimentary society labor, in other societies a cost of
     production. Real prices are always the “same.”
    2. “Nominal” price is of different values depending on the value of gold and silver. It is the price in quantity of money.
    3. “Market” price is the “actual price at which any commodity is commonly sold. It may either be above, or below, or exactly the same with its natural price.”
    4. “Natural” price is “When the price of any commodity is neither more nor less than what is sufficient to pay the rent of land, the wages of the labor, and the profits of the stock employed in raising, preparing, and bringing to market,
                according to their natural rates, the commodity is then sold for what may be called  its natural price.”

    Wages are based on bargaining and contract. Wages fund argument. Wages is the amount necessary to bring up a family and more workers

    Profits are subject to variations. Wages and profits are inversely related.

    For Smith, profits include interest. Reduced capital stock increases profit, increased capital stock reduces profit. Profits equalize across industries
    Rent is a residual profit. It may or may not be used for improvements. Wages and profit are causes of price of rent.

    Money is regarded primarily as a medium of exchange. It is the “wheel of circulation.” Paper money saves resources of extracting gold and silver

    Role of government in an exchange economy:
    1. provide for national defense
    2. provide for domestic justice and
    3. those things not “in the interest for any individual to
              provide.” (public works, roads, bridges, schools, etc.)

    Government should prevent workers from becoming as “stupid and ignorant as possible” due to division of labor.

    Government revenue:
    1. Mercantile projects
    2. Public lands
    3. Taxes

    Smith on taxes:
     “Subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of government, as  nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities: that is, in proportion  to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.”

    Taxes should be:
    1. “certain and not arbitrary”
    2. “levied at the time, or in the manner which it is most likely be convenient for the contributor”
    3. “take as little as possible out of the pockets of the people.”

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    Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
    By Jarret Layson, 2001

    1. The division of Labor

    · "give me that which I want and you shall have this which you want"
    · we do not expect goods from the kindness of the manufacturer but from their regard for their own interest
    · from the beginnings man has applied himself to an occupation for the certainty of being able to exchange the surplus from his labor for another man's surplus
    · difference of talents between man is useful to society
    · summary: " the most dissimilar geniuses are of use to one another"

    2. Private Interests and Public Benefit

    · The advantages and disadvantages of different employments must be equal or continually tending to equality
    · every prodigal appears to be a public enemy, and every frugal man a public benefactor
    · it seldom occurs that a nation can be much affected by either the prodigality or misconduct of individuals, because it's always compensated by the frugality and good conduct of others
    · principle which prompts man to save is that to better one's condition
    · bankruptcy is the most "humiliating calamity" and every man attempts to avoid it
    · Great nations are never impoverished by private, but sometimes by public prodigality and misconduct
    · The general industry of the society never can exceed what the capital of the society can employ
    · Man's quest to find his most advantageous employment naturally leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to the society
    · Man generally neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it
    · Those who pursue their own good, frequently promote the good of the society more
    · The security that man shall enjoy the fruits of his own labor is alone sufficient to make any country flourish
    · Summary: without law private interests of men naturally lead them to divide and distribute the stock, which is most agreeable to the interest of the whole.

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    Locke notes have moved to Volume 1 Notes.
     
     

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    Immanuel Kant (p. 42-47)
    by David Abbott, Spring 2001

        Fundamental Principles of the Metaphisics of Morals

         Prop. #1: an action, to have moral worth, must be done from duty (deontological
         ethics; principle-based)
         Prop. #2: an action done from duty derives its moral worth, not from the purpose
         which is to be attained by it, but from the maxim (principle) by which it is determined,
         and therefore does not depend on the realization of the object of the action, but
         merely on the principle of volition by which the action has taken place, without regard
         to any object of desire. (It's not how you win, but how you play the game; or, it's the
         thought that counts) Moral value of any decision or action does not come from the
         end achieved, but from the principle of will; the will stands between its a priori
         principle, which is formal, and its a postiori spring, which is material.
         Prop. #3: Duty is the necessity of acting from respect for the law.
         Moral good consists in nothing other than the conception of the law, which is only
         possible in rational beings.
         Laws must come the general concept, not specific to some; it must be applicable to all
         (absolute, not relative)

    The Categorical Imperative

         The will of men is not only influenced by reason, which would always cause them to
         do good; there are other  (subjective) influences as well; thus, to counter these other
         influences, obligation to laws determined by pure reason (objective principles) must
         serve as an impetus to follow the moral reasoning of which the will on its own is not
         capable of attaining.

         " The conception of an objective principle, in so far as it is obligatory for a will, is
         called a command (of reason), and the formula of the command is called an
         Imperative." The imperative is expressed by the phrase "ought to"; it is an obligation,
         indicating the relationship of an objective law of reason to a will.
         Imperatives are either hypothetical or categorical; hypothetical applies to actions
         which are means to an end; categorical refers to actions which are in themselves an
         end. The first is necessary to achieve an end; the second is necessary in itself,
         objectively. Morality is always a categorical imperative.
         There is only one categorical imperative: "Act only on that maxim whereby thou canst
         at the same time will that it should become a universal law"...in other words, actions
         should always be guided by principles which are consistent with a universal moral law.
         Whatever we do, we should only do if we believe that the principle on which our
         action is based, should be a universal law; if we think everyone else should also hold
         that principle.

        Man as an End

         All people, and rational beings, should be thought of as an end in themselves, having
         objective and absolute, not subjective or relative, worth; that is, their value is inherent,
         not dependent on their usefulness to our own ends. Thus, we should never use others
         only as a means to an end; we should treat them as a worthwhile end in themselves


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    Karl Marx
    (Amy Garrett, 2001)
    I. Fundamental Proposition of Marxism
    A. History of Mankind is history of class struggle
    B. It is the exploitation vs the exploited, ruling vs oppressed 
    II. Theory of Class Struggles in History
    A. All societies have had some form of class structure
    B. Bourgeois must settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere 
    C. They have created enormous cities and turned semi barbarian and barbarian countries dependent on civilized ones, east dependent on the west
    D. Laborers are slaves to the bourgeois state and develop a proletariat (people who sell their labor to live) 
    E. Stages of proletariat:
    1. Struggle with bourgeois individually
    2. Become workers in factory 
    3. Operatives of 1 trade in 1 locality fight; proletariat begin to grow in mass and strength as their work becomes less valuable
    4. form trade unions 
    5. Become a class and political party 
    F. Bourgeois is no longer compatible to society because it causes working class to sink further rather than rise up
    G. The formation and augmentation of capital essential condition for bourgeois => condition for capital is wage labor =>this rests solely on competition between laborers => allows laborers to fight as a unit
    III. Utopian Socialists
    A. First movement of proletariat failed because proletariat was not developed and economic conditions were good 
    B. Socialists and communists societies want to improve condition of everyone in society 
    C. useful for the enlightenment of the working class but purely utopian in nature 
    IV. World Revolution
    A. Communist fight for the present and the future of the movement to instill working class with the idea that bourgeois are against the proletariat turning most of their attention to Germany 
    B. Communist everywhere support every revolutionary movement that goes against the existing political and social order 
    C. "Proletariat have nothing to lose but their chains."
    V. The Materialistic Conception of History
    A. Proposition that the production and the exchange of things produced is the means to support life is the basis of all social structure 
    B. Revolutions should be sought in the changes in the modes of production and exchange
    C. Men are producers of their conceptions and the existence of men is their actual life process. Consciousness is determined by life 
    D. The ultimate determining element in history is the production and reproduction of real life.
    E. Humans make history themselves but under definite conditions, of which economic ones are ultimately decisive.
    VI. The Inevitable Doom of Capitalism
    A. The more the proletariat grows, the more they will gain strength, and soon the laborers will overcome capitalism
    B. Centralization of production and the socialization of labor will eventually reach a point where they are no longer compatible with capitalism.
    VII. The Withering Away of the State
    A.The modern state is a capitalist machine
    B. Society must take possession of production 
    C. The proletariat must seize political power and turn the means of production into state property. 
    D. There have been societies who have done without state and state power.
    E. Soon the existence of classes will become a hindrance to production and cause the state to fall; those who reorganize society will do so on a basis of a free and equal association of the producers 
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    Outline for Curtis chapters on Marxism
    (David Abbott, 2001) 

    1. Marx and Engels 

           The Communist Manifesto (p. 158) 

         Social reality is determined by economic factors 
         The history of mankind is a history of class struggles 
         The class system develops over time, each new phase growing out of and replacing an old one 
         The bourgeoise class, the class of capitalists which owns the means of production and
         exploits the working class (proletariat), grew from the feudal system. It has taken control of all
         aspects of society and converted them into servants to its own ends, leaving no relationship except
         as defined by economic self-interest. Property is centralized more and more into the hands of the few. 
         The bourgeois had developed forces of production and exchange which outgrew the system of
         capitalist private property; the old must be replaced by a new system adapted to the new realities
         created by capitalism; the bourgeois has planted the seeds of its own destruction. 
         Laborers are to the bourgeois just another commodity; the value of a commodity is determined by the
         cost of production, which in the case of a worker is equal to subsistence level; this is the basis of
         wages. 
         The proletarians must unite first into unions, then into a political party. They must unite to take over
         the means of production from the control of the bourgeois. The revolution will take place first in
         individual nations and then spread to the rest of the world. 
         "Proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains; they have a world to win. Workingmen
         of all countries, unite!" 

    The Dialectic Method (p. 172) 

         Marx's method different from Hegel's 
         Hegel: ideas create reality (similar to Plato) 
         Marx: reality creates ideas (dialectic materialism) 
         method of interpreting history (and predicting future); each epoch reaches crisis stage at which
         changing of guard takes place; the status quo (thesis) conflict with the revolutionary movement
         (antithesis) and produces the new status quo (synthesis); cycle is repeated. 

    The Materialist Conception of History (p. 173) 

         premise: economic factors of production and exchange are the basis for all social structures 
         change must take place when the existing social order, "adapted to earlier economic conditions", does not fit the new economic reality 
         economic factors are the most important (ultimately determining) elements of history, but not the only elements (Engels) 

    The Inevitable Doom of Capitalism (p. 177) 

         "The monopoly of capital becomes a fetter upon the mode of production which has sprung up and
         flourished along with and under it. Centralization of the means of production and socialization of labor at last reach a point where they become incompatible with their capitalist integument." 

    The Withering Away of the State (p. 178) 

         The state is an instrument of the bourgeoise to protect the capitalist system; it is an instrument of
         oppression; it maintains the status quo 
         It will expand its powers until it is too large, caving in of its own weight 
         State owenrship of the means of production is not itself the solution 
         The solution consists in the " practical recognition of the social nature of the modern forces of
         production, and therefore in the harmonizing of the modes of production, appropriation, and exchange
         with the socialized character of the means of production. And this can come about only by society
         openly and directly taking possession of the productive forces which have outgrown all control
         except that of society as a whole." 
         Proletariat makes the means of production the property of the state, which represents the people;
         thus, theoretically, the means of production are owned by the people in common. At this point, the
         state "renders itself unnecessary", becoming superfluous,and is not abolished but simply dies out. It
         has outlived its usefulness, sort of worked itself out of a job. 
         At a certain point in economic development of society, the state and state power, as well as the class
         structure, became necessary; but the society will eventually evolve economically to the place where
         classes and states are not only unnecessary but a hindrance to production, to further growth and
         development. When there are no more classes, when all are truly equal,there will be no more conflict,
         and the dialectic cycle will end. This will be the Communist society, the "worker's
         paradise"...the end of history, in a sense. 


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    Lenin
    Todd Adams, Fall 2008

    What Is to Be Done? (1902)
    • Lenin called for the formation of a professional revolutionary party of intellectuals that would direct the efforts of the proletariat
    • Lenin believed that the proletariat, left to their own devices, would be satisfied with trade union consciousness which would only lead to further exploitation by the bourgeoisie 
    • Only a centralized, militant organization that consistently carries out a Social-Democratic policy that satisfies all revolutionary instincts and strivings can safeguard the movement against making thoughtless attacks and prepare it for attacks that hold out the promise of success
    • Only serious organizational principle that active workers of the movement may accept-
    1. strict secrecy
    2. strict selection of members
    3. training of professional revolutionists
    The State and Revolution (1917)
    • The state is the product and the manifestation of the irreconcilability of class antagonisms
    • The state is an instrument of bourgeoisie oppression and domination over 
    the proletariat
    • The liberation of the proletariat is impossible without a violent revolution and the destruction of the apparatus of state power created by the ruling class
    • A dictatorship of the proletariat must be established to suppress the bourgeoisie until a classless society comes into being with the transition from capitalism to Communism
    • Only Communism renders the state absolutely unnecessary since there is no class to oppress
    • The state will wither away completely when society has realized the rule: “From each according to his ability; to each according to his needs”
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    Lenin
    Sierra R Turner, 2004
    The theory of Socialism grew out of the philosophic, historical, and economic theories that were elaborated by the educated representatives of the propertied classes, the intellectuals.

    In Russia, the theoretical doctrine of Social-Democracy arose quite independently of the spontaneous growth of the labour movement; it rose as a natural and inevitable outcome of the development of ideas among the revolutionary Socialist intelligentsia….

    The Social-Democrat’s ideal should not be a trade-union secretary, but a tribune of the people, able to react to every manifestation of tyranny and oppression, no matter where it takes place, no matter what stratum or class of the people it affects….

    The worker’s organizations must:
    1) be trade organizations,
    2) be as wide as possible, and
    3) be a public as conditions will allow.

    On the other hand, they must be comprised first and foremost of people whose profession is that of revolutionists

    According to Lenin:
     1) No movement can be durable without a stable organization of leaders to continuity, 
    2) The more widely the masses are drawn into the struggle and form the basis of the movement, the more necessary it is to have such an organization and the more stable it must be….
    3) Organization must consist chiefly of persons engaged in revolution as a profession, 
    4) In a country with a despotic government, the more we restrict the membership of this organization to persons who are engaged in revolution…the more difficult it will be to catch the organization, and 
    5) The wider will be the circle of men and women of the working class or of other classes of society bale to join the movement and perform active work in it

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    Lenin
    (David Abbott, 2001) 
    What is to be Done? 1902 (p. 362) 

         Spontaneous and Revolutionary Activity: the proletariat on its own can only form trade unions which
         in fact work to serve the bourgeoise. 
         The Need for a Revolutionary Party: need professional revolutionaries; a small, secret organization
         made up of experienced and dedicated select membership, can accomplish all the goals of a trade
         union and do so more efficiently. 

    The State and Revolution-1917 (p. 366) 

         The Need for Revolution: The state is an instrument of bourgeoise oppression and domination over
         the proletariat. It will not wither away on its own but can only be overthrown by violent revolution;
         only the proletariat state will wither away naturally, and with it the need for any state at all. 
         The Dictatorship of the Proletariat: The dictatorship of the proletariat must be established to
         supress the bourgeoise until a classless society comes into being. A true Marxist must accept not
         only the class struggle but also the need for this rule by the working class. It must be maintained not
         by a bureacracy but by an armed mass of workers. True democracy is established, one which
         represents the people and not just the rich, during the transition period from capitalism to
         Communism. Only when Communist society has come into being will the state wither away, when
         there is no longer any class of people (perhaps some individuals) who must be supressed.This will
         take place after people have become accustomed to observing the "elementary rules of social life" for
         their own sake, without the need for further incentive. without the need for compulsion or
         subordination; then the state will be unnecessary. 
         Communist Society: Communism cannot immediately do away with all injustices, only those which
         arise from individual control of the means of production. Real equality, and thus justice, will only be
         realized when all voluntarily accept and live by the phrase : "From each according to his
         ability; to each according to his need." Then there will be no more need for
         redistribution; all will give freely as they can and all will take freely as they need. 


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    Trotsky
    By Jonathan Lyons, Fall 2006
    The Soviet Bureaucracy

     -The rule by the bureaucracy was made possible by the harsh poverty and backwardness of Russia. The bureaucracy controlled the state and therefore the means of production, and as productivity grew, so did inequality. 

     -“Soviet Thermidor”-triumph of bureaucracy over the masses

     -The “privileged minority” reaped the rewards of high productivity, and the bureaucracy no longer functions for the good of the state.  Products become low quality because freedom of initiative and criticism is no longer possible.  The state of production does not guarantee all necessities to everyone, but gives significant privileges to the minority.

     -Soviet society is not harmonious, In order for the socialist culture to thrive, it will only succeed in proportion to the dying away of the state.  Socialism will only exist if workers overthrow the bureaucracy, and if this occurs genius will flourish and as creativity is no longer limited by the state

     -Bonapartism-the worship of the state leader who personifies bureaucracy, who is kept in place by force. Stalin’s regime is kept in place by armed police against the unarmed masses.  A successful proletariat revolution would crush Bonapartism but the workers have been slow to respond.
     
     

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    Trotsky
    Sierra R. Turner, 2004

    The strength of the compulsion exercised by the masses in a workers’ State is directly proportional to the strength of the exploitative tendencies….

    The bureaucracy represents a special kind of compulsion which the masses cannot or do not wish to exercise. 

    The present Soviet society cannot prosper without a State or bureaucracy.

    The bureaucracy enjoys it privileges under the form of an abuse of power. It conceals its income; it pretends that as a special group it does not even exist. 

    The Soviet Union is a contradictory society half-way between capitalism and socialism, in which:
    1) the property lacks a socialist character,
    2) primitive accumulation of wants comes through the holes of the planned economy, 
    3) distribution is at the basis of a new differentiation of society, 
    4) economic growth, while slow, provides a formation of privileged strata, 
    5) has evolved into a an uncontrolled caste alien to socialism, 
    6) existence of the social revolution, 
    7) further development of the accumulating contradictions can lead to socialism or back to capitalism, 
    8) capitalism= break the resistance of the workers, and
    9) socialism= workers would have to overthrow the bureaucracy.

    Caesarism arose upon the basis of a slave society shaken by inward strife while Bonapartism is one of the political weapons of the capitalist regime in its critical periods. Stalininsm is a variety of the same system, but upon the basis of a workers’ State torn by the antagonism between an organized and armed Soviet aristocracy and unarmed toiling masses. 

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    Trotsky
    (Amy Garrett, ca.2001)

    *Soviet Thermidor - a triumph of the bureaucracy over the masses
    *Soviet society still needs a bureaucracy because of the lies caused from Social contradictions
    *Bureaucratic rule results in each against all
    *the Soviet bureaucracy causes inequality, privilege, and advantage to rise
    *The state of production does not guarantee all necessities to everybody, but give significant privileges to a minority
    *the bureaucracy is a new class that goes above that of the upper class
    *they enjoy their privileges by abusing their power
    *the soviet union is halfway between socialism and capitalism (reasons listed on page 376)
    *Soviet society is not harmonious
    *bureaucracy causes products to lose their quality
    *the socialist culture will flourish only in proportion to the dying away of the state
    *Stalin is the personification of the bureaucracy
    *Stalin is producing a new type of Bonapartism referred to by Trotsky as Stalinism
    *Stalinism is based on an antagonism between an organized aristocracy and uneducated masses
    *Stalinism and fascism are parallel; both were caused by a reaction to the revolution of the
    world

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    Trotsky 
    (David Abbott, ca. 2000) 

    The Revolution Betrayed (p. 373) 

         Soviet Bureaucracy: The revolutionary vanguard of the proletariat has been swallowed up by
         bureaucracy. The rule by bureaucracy was made possible by the extreme poverty and backwardness
         of Russia. The bureaucracy controlled the state, which controlled the means of production; as
         produtivity grew, so did inequality; a privileged minority "took the cream" from the top. Their actions
         seem inconsistent if the goal is to establish socialism; but they are very consisitent if the goal is to
         maintain or expand the privilege and power of the bureaucracy. A necessary organ has outgrown its
         function, becoming an independent factor which threatens the whole organism. Products are of
         inferior quality because, in an atmosphere of fear, lies, and flattery, freedom of criticism and initiative
         is not possible. Revolutionary dictatorship requires strict limitations on freedom, but this inhibits
         creativity; genius will flourish with the demise of the state, of the dictatorship. But the bureaucracy is
         not working in the interests of society; it is operating out of its own interest, ruthlessly its own power
         and income. 
         Bonapartism: the worship of the state leader, whether it be the Pope, Ceaser, Napolean, or Stalin, who
         personifies the bureaucracy; it is kept in place by force (Plebiscite). Stalin's regime is supported by
         armed police against unarmed masses. It is similar to fascism. A true and succesful proeltariat
         revolution would wipe away both Bonapartism and fascism; but it is because the workers of the world
         have been slow to respond, slow to act, because the continued world revolution did not take
         place, that this has happened to them.


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    Socialism and Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
    Charles Walters 2005
    -The vast industrial and social changes of the nineteenth century produced more numerous and complex problems than in any previous period. This brought unemployment, bitterness in industrial relationships, growth in towns and prosperity increase. Protest took place in these forms
        - Destructive- Luddites
        - Philanthropic and humanitarian- Shaftesbury and Charles Kingsley
        - Aesthetic- John Ruskin
        - Revolutionary
    - Socialism was coined in the 1830’s separately in both England and France- writers were called “Utopian Socialists” by Marx and others they did not agree on a common platform or group together. But they all criticized the established order and industrial system, where hostile to capitalism (competition and private property), and believed that these conditions could be improved.
    Important thinkers-
    Robert Owen- England
    Fourier, Cabet, Proudhon, Saint-Simon- France

    The themes in their writings included the importance of the environment and of the economic system in conditioning character and behavior, labor theory of value, nature of surplus value and exploitation, class struggle, nature of economic crises, need for communal ownership, role for the proletariat, and role of credit in the financial system- They were called the “Utopians” and the Marxists owed more than they pretended to their arguments. 

    Proudhon:

    self- educated editor, man of the people, was a spokesman for the individualism of the small farmer rather than the proletariat, argued for an end to privilege, abolition of slavery, equality of rights, and the reign of law. Social change should be peaceful with the help of the bourgeoisie, without destroying family or tradition. He attacked finance capitalism, argued for the institution of credit unions, popular banks and cooperatives, but opposed to the claim of trade unions to collect bargaining and the right to strike, and to plan any uniform society. Marx was the tapeworm of socialism.
    He was essentially a libertarian searching for a free society and for those associations where a “social republic” might be reached. Attacked centralization of government and industry believed in federalism, decentralization, regionalism, and mutuality, power should come from natural groups and working units than from above. 
    Proudhon’s What is Property?
    -just as slavery is murder, property is robbery
    -traditionally the right to property is a civil right sanctioned by law or it is a natural right which being a natural right it is derived from labor, but Proudhon says that labor, law, or occupation cannot create property
    -did not ask to build a system only for an end to privilege, abolition of slavery, equality of rights, and reign of law—justice is the KEY of his argument 
    Social Liquidation and Mutualism
    -Fall of monarchy and proclamation of the Republic signaled a social revolution
    -The Revolution consisted of substituting in the place of the old feudal and military government system for approval of a economic/industrial system where there would be a base of economic forces for the basis of the organization (not a government)—it must result from the nature of things and there should be nothing arbitrary about it
    -The principle of association which is invoked by most schools, because it is neither a natural or economic law it would be barred because the Revolution bars the words government & obedience.
    -The “Sphere” is the family; it cannot be legitimately extended to the city or nation
    -In the place of association there was a tendency to substitute reciprocity, where there is both an economic force and law
    -A “contract” is the only moral bond which fee and equal beings can accept
    -Essential Factors of the Revolution:
    Cause- Economic chaos from the 1789 Revolution
    Occasion: progressive, systematic poverty where government finds itself the promoter and supporter
    Organic Principle: reciprocity which is in law terms- contract
    Aim: guaranty of work and wages, creating wealth and liberty
    Parties- Socialist schools (principle of association) and the democratic factions which are still devoted to the principles of centralization and of the state
    THE NEW ORDER
    -A New Order is being constructed “underground” by society. This “Order” gives the expression of vitality, autonomy and the denial of religion and politics. 
    -Principles:
     -indefinite perfectibility of the individual and of the race
    -honorableness of work
    -equality of fortunes
    -identity of interests
    -end of antagonisms
    -universality of comfort
    -sovereignty of reason
    -absolute liberty of the man and of the citizen
     -Principle forms of Activity
     -Division of labor (replaces caste)
    -Collective Power (replaces armies)
    -Commerce (takes place of law)
    -Competition
    -Credit (heavy upon interests as government hierarchy turns on “Obedience”)
    -Equilibrium of values and properties

    -The old government system was based upon “Divine Right” and even though sovereignty of the people has been introduced it has been but a skirmishing line for Liberty
    -It is a mistake to make a distinction between an absolute monarchy and constitutional monarchy and even a democratic republic; because the distinctions do not touch underlying principles
    -There can be no fusion between the political and the economic systems, between the systems of laws and system of contract
    -It is an industrial system to be put in place instead of government is what Proudhon wishes to do
    -No more laws just contracts- political force replaced by economic force- instead of castes there will be departments of industry- a collective force will replace public force- industrial associations will replace armies- police will no longer be in existence but a identity of interests- economic centralization will replace political centralization
    -Unity and centralization is perpetual chaos—a basis for endless for tyranny
    -“Let us try then by clear criticism to make the test of government so conclusive, that the absurdity of the institution will strike all minds, and Anarchy, dreaded as a scourge, will be accepted as a benefit.”

    Curtis, Vol. II. Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
    Woojung Lee

    §       A libertarian: searching for a free society and for those 
    associations through which the social republic might be reached and 
    workers take over their natural inheritance
    §       Constantly attacked centralization of government and industry
    §       Believe in federalism, decentralization, regionalism and mutuality
    §       His idea affected not only the French working class movement, but also the ideas of the Russian anarchists.

    What is Property? (1840)
    §       As slavery is murder, property is robbery.
    §       Neither labor, nor occupation, nor law, can create property.
    §       Demands an end to privilege, the abolition of slavery, equality of rights and the reign of law. 

    The General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century (1851)
    1.      Social Liquidation and Mutualism
    1.      (French) Revolution became settled and defined.
    2.      Revolution consists in substituting the economic or industrial system for the governmental system.
    3.      By an industrial system, a constitution of society having for its basis the organization of economic force which must result from the nature of things, nothing arbitrary
    4.      Political principle revived recently under the name of direct government is but a false application of the principle of authority.
    5.      We have established  A new idea, idea of association and contract 

    2.      The New Order
    1.      The society is constructing a new order, the expression of its vitality and autonomy, and the denial of the old politics and religion
    2.      Principles and forms of activity (p. 137)
    3.      There is no fusion between the political (system of law) and economic (system of contract).
    4.      Instead of government, laws, political powers, public force, and police, we will put industrial organization, contract, economic forces, collective forces, and identity of interests.
     


    Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
    Geoff Warren, 2002

    The Division of Labour

    *It is human nature to barter and exchange for goods (trade).
    *Man is the only animal that doesn’t live independently, he expects
    cooperation and assistance from the multitudes( through trading).
    *People trade for their own self interest, not to help others out, in
    effect, give me what I want and you shall have what you want.
    *so....It is through this natural human trade that we have division of labor.
    *a man becomes accustomed to providing a service to his neighbors for
    which they pay him in goods and services.  He finds that it is in his
    self-interest to provide these services so he becomes a butcher, a baker, or a candlemaker.
    *difference between a philosopher and a common street porter.... habit,
    custom, and education.
    Private Interest and Public Benefit
    *a great Nation can seldom be affected by the misconduct or imprudence
    of some, because it will always be overcome by the frugality and good conduct of others.
    * it is natural for man t always strive to better their condition in life.
    *an augmentation of fortune is the means by which the greater part of
    men propose to better their condition.
    *although the principle of expense(spending money on useless things)
    prevails in almost all men at some time it is always counteracted by frugality.
    *Great Nations are never impoverished by private misconduct but instead public misconduct.
    *examples are countries that maintain huge governments and armies
    during times of piece with nothing to compensate for them or in times
    of war do nothing to compensate for maintaining them.
    *such people, as they produce nothing, are dependant on others labor
    *the effort of every man to better his condition is usually powerful
    enough to maintain the progress of improvement in spite of errors of administration. 
    *general industry of society can never exceed what the capital of
    society can employ (economy can not constantly pay out more than it makes)
    *capital employed in the home trade necessarily puts into motion a
    greater quantity of domestic industry and puts into motion a greater
    quantity of domestic industry.
    *by pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the
    society more effectively than when he really intends to promote it. (Man)
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    Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
    By Jarret Layson, 2001

    1. The division of Labor

    · "give me that which I want and you shall have this which you want"
    · we do not expect goods from the kindness of the manufacturer but from their regard for their own interest
    · from the beginnings man has applied himself to an occupation for the certainty of being able to exchange the surplus from his labor for another man's surplus
    · difference of talents between man is useful to society
    · summary: " the most dissimilar geniuses are of use to one another"

    2. Private Interests and Public Benefit

    · The advantages and disadvantages of different employments must be equal or continually tending to equality
    · every prodigal appears to be a public enemy, and every frugal man a public benefactor
    · it seldom occurs that a nation can be much affected by either the prodigality or misconduct of individuals, because it's always compensated by the frugality and good conduct of others
    · principle which prompts man to save is that to better one's condition
    · bankruptcy is the most "humiliating calamity" and every man attempts to avoid it
    · Great nations are never impoverished by private, but sometimes by public prodigality and misconduct
    · The general industry of the society never can exceed what the capital of the society can employ
    · Man's quest to find his most advantageous employment naturally leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to the society
    · Man generally neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it
    · Those who pursue their own good, frequently promote the good of the society more
    · The security that man shall enjoy the fruits of his own labor is alone sufficient to make any country flourish
    · Summary: without law private interests of men naturally lead them to divide and distribute the stock, which is most agreeable to the interest of the whole.

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    The Utilitarians: Bentham, James Mill and J.S. Mill
    Jeremy Bentham
    Charles Walters, Fall 2005

    - There are two masters from nature that governs mankind Pleasure and Pain
    - Right and wrong, causes and effects are tied to its throne thus, they alone should determine what we do.
    - People may deny their obedience to pleasure and pain with their mouths but they are obedient all the while.
    - The fabric of happiness and contentedness should be reared by reason and law
    - The principle of utility is the principle that approves and disapproves of actions which will either create or destroy in some form the interests of a certain party’s happiness.
    - Utility will promote happiness, benefit, advantage and pleasure and act to prevent pain and evil to a party, whether a community or individual
    - The interests of the community are the interests of all the individual members who compose it.
    - We must first understand the interest of the individual before we can that of the community.
    - Any action by government then can be considered conformable to the principle of utility if the tendency to promote the happiness is greater than that to diminish the happiness of the community.
    - Thus, it may be convenient to put such an action into a law or dictate
    - If an action is right to be done, or at least is not wrong to be done then it should be done.
    - A legislature ought to have in his views for a sole standard to judge his convictions by, the happiness for the individual
    - Therefore it helps the legislature to understand the value and the force of pleasures and pains
    - The value of pain or pleasure should be considered by these seven circumstances:

    o intensity
    o duration
    o certainty or uncertainty
    o remoteness
    o the chances of being followed by more reactions of either pain or happiness once instated as a law
    o its purity or chances of not being followed by more reactions
    o and to its “extent” or the number of persons affected by it
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    James Mill
    Charles Walters, Fall 2005

    - Human pains and pleasures are produced by either fellow men or causes independent of other men
    - The concern of government should be to increase the pleasures and diminish to the utmost the pains derived from each other.
    - Labor is our biggest question because from labor we derive our means of subsistence and our pleasures- thus creating the primary cause of government.
    - If nature had created all every man needed and enough for his desires then there would be no need for any man having authority over another.
    - But because nature did not do so, man fights for acquiring authority thus creating government.
    - A man with less than another has a desire to take from the man with the more, thus creating a need for men to unite together for protection. Where the greatest attainment of this goal is when these men delegate small number of power necessary for protecting them which is government.
    - This government’s power becomes boundless in the number of persons to whom it can be extended to and boundless in its degree of power over each.
    - Rulers of community then desire conformity between their will and the members of the community.
    - There are two classes in which conformity between the will of one man and the acts of other can be accomplished and that is through pain or pleasure.
    - When a man possesses many objects which are desired then that man can give these objects to other men to insure conformity between his will and their actions.
    - It is unconceivable that a king or an aristocracy be content with many objects of desire and return the objects back to the community.
    - A person who desires obedience must be able to inflict pain because pleasure is not enough of an incentive for obedience. It is easier to turn away from pleasure than it is pain.
    - Terror is the instrument which must be used to keep conformity of will.
    - Mill says then if a government is entrusted to one man or a few men an aristocracy will form and the results are fatal.
    - In order to find a good government we need checks to keep individuals from making bad use of power, representation seems to be a solution where the community itself uses checks to keep individuals in line.
    - The checking body must have a degree of power sufficient to do the task.
    - It must have an identity of interest with the community so as not to make mischievous use of power.
    - The ability for a representative to do himself good by doing the community bad should be eliminated or if not, then there should be a term limit on his involvement with government. 

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    John Stuart Mill
    Charles Walters, Fall 2005

    - some pleasures are more desirable and more valuable than others therefore there is a system of quality in pleasure
    - A person of higher faculty is more capable to acute sufferings than someone of a lower faculty. Although this person may be liable to suffer more, they still do not wish to sink to a lower level of existence or so they may think. It may be because of: pride, love of liberty, personal independence, love of power, the love of excitement, but most of all to a sense of dignity that all humans possess in one form or another
    - dignity is proportional to lower and higher faculties 
    - If a person of higher faculty does not feel happiness, he does find a way to bear its imperfections because; Mills says it is better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied.
    - Is there a particular pleasure worth purchasing at the cost of a particular pain?
    - The Utilitarian standard is having the greatest amount of happiness altogether—so it can only be attained if a general cultivation of nobleness of character being that nobleness is what makes a person happy
    - some objectors say happiness can not be a rational purpose of human life because they say for one it is unattainable and of course continuous happiness is impossible because a state of pleasure is not steady and permanent
    - A life with few and transitory pains with many and various pleasures, with a decided predominance of the active over the passive and not expecting more from life than can be given- is considered a life of happiness.
    - Mill says the only thing from people experiencing this life is the education and social arrangements of his time
    - Mill also says that when people are tolerably fortunate and still do not find enjoyment, selfishness is usually why. Other than selfishness, the reason for being unhappy is the lack of mental cultivation. 
    - A cultivated mind can find interest in all that surrounds it such as: art, poetry, nature, history, mankind, and the future. Though it is possible for someone to become indifferent to surroundings when it is only treated as curiosity.
    - Mill acknowledges that in order to serve best the happiness of others, one has to sacrifice his own happiness which would make a very imperfect state of the world. But, the readiness to do such is the highest virtue able to be found in man.
    - The conscious ability to do without happiness is the best way to realize that such happiness is attainable.
    - utilitarian morality recognizes that one’s own greater good should be sacrificed for the greater good of others. But if it does not increase the greater good it will be wasted.
    - Utilitarianism only applauds self-renunciation if it is devoted to happiness.
    - The complete spirit of the ethics of utility is “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” Thus, placing the interests of every individual closest to harmony with the interests of the whole as possible and that education and opinion reflect this idea. 

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    John Stuart Mill
    By: Krista Leachman Fall 2003

    -leading figure of Utilitarianism
    -attempted to combine rationalism and romanticism, intellectual culture with other kinds of cultivation through the former always dominated work.

    -argued that life had more important ends than simply the pursuit of pleasure
    -the cultivation of feelings and the development of character were equally important
    -Mill is more significant for his discussion of and contribution to liberalism than for his utilitarianism.

    -became aware of insufficiency of classical liberalism

    -His advocacy of state action, compulsory state education and increased social control made him, at the end, call himself a socialist.

    -Negative Liberty
    -The sole end for which mankind are warranted, individual or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection.

    -Liberty of Thought
    -In all mankind minus one were one opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would he no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind.

    -In politics, it is almost a commonplace, that a party of order or stability, and a party of progress or reform, is both necessary elements of a healthy state of political life.

    -Liberty of Action
    -No one pretends that actions should be as free as opinions.

    -The greatest difficulty to be encountered does not lie in the appreciation of means towards an acknowledged end, but the indifference of persons in general to the end itself.

    -The Despotism of Custom
    -The despotism of custom is everywhere the standing hindrance to human advancement, being in unceasing antagonism to that disposition to aim at something better than customary, which is called, according to circumstances, the spirit of liberty, or that of progress or improvement.

    -Limits to Authority
    -To individuality should belong the part of life in which it is chiefly the individual that is interested; to society, the part which chiefly interests society.

    -If society lets any number of its members grow up mere children, incapable of being acted on by rational consideration of distant motives, society has itself to blame for the consequences.

    -The strongest of all the arguments against the interference of the public with purely personal conduct is that, when it does interfere, the odds are that interferes wrongly, and in the wrong place.

     John Stuart Mill, on Liberty
    Lindsey Langston, 2001

    Principles of Liberty

    * Liberty of Thought and Feeling
                - absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects, practical or speculative, scientific, moral, or theological

    *Liberty of Tastes and Pursuits
                - framing the plans of our lives
                - doing as we like

    *Liberty of combination among individuals
                - freedom to unite for any purpose, without involving harm to others

    "No society in which these liberties are not, on the whole, respected, is free!"

    Mankind has complete independence and liberty over himself, his own body and mind, but his actions are limited when concerning the well-being of others.

    Once mankind became capable of being guided to their own improvement, compulsion was no longer admissable as a means to their own good.
        - Compulsion is only justifiable for the security of others.
        - Individual spontaneity is subject to external control.

            In conclusion.........
        Mill warns that the disposition of mankind, whether as rulers or fellow-citizens, is to impose their own opinions and inclinations as conduct on others. This is hardly ever kept under restraint by anything but want of power. And since this power is growing it will continue to grow and pose a threat to our principles of liberty, unless a barrier of moral conviction can be raised to stop it.

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    Herbert Spencer
    by Brandy Smith, 2003
    Herbert Spencer was a chief representative of Social Darwinism. He was a individualist believing that the functions of the state were limited to protection, that no restrictions should be placed on commerce and no provision made for social welfare or education.
     Spencer believed that the evolutionary process, in the absence of interference, led inevitably to social improvement. He stated that the whole effort of nature was to get rid of the inefficient and to make room for the better. By helping the “unfit” and through public charity weaknesses were passed on. 

    The Study of Sociology
            Mutual dependence of parts is that which initiates and guides organization of every kind. So long as, in a mass of living matter, all parts are alike, and all parts similarly live and grow without aid from one another, there is no organization. 
            Each part can abandon that original state in which it fulfilled for itself all vital needs, and can assume a state in which it fulfills in excess some single vital need, only if its other vital needs are fulfilled for it by other parts that have meanwhile undertaken other special activities. There must be an exchange of services. 
            Spencer stresses the fact that when a Legislature takes from the worthy and gives to the unworthy-when cause and consequence, joined in the order of Nature, are thus divorced by law-makers; then may properly come the suggestion-“Cease your interference.”

    Social Darwinism 
            The quality of a society is physically lowered by the artificial preservation of its feeblest members. The society is lowered both morally and intellectually. If the unworthy are helped to increase, then you will reproduce generation after generation of greater unworthiness. 

    Herbert Spencer
    By: Krista Leachman, Fall 2003

    -Herbert Spencer, product of a nonconformist background, was always an individualist, believing that the functions of the state were limited to protection that no restrictions should be placed on commerce and no provision made for social welfare or education.

    -used the analogy the social and individual organism, but at the same time warned that it was only a metaphor

    -mutual dependence of parts is that which initiates and guides organization of every kind

    -It may be rightly contended that if those who are but little fitted to the social state are rigorously subjected to these conditions, evil will result: intolerable restraint, if it does not deform or destroy life, will be followed by violent reaction.

    -Social Darwinism
    -Other evils are entailed by legislative actions and by actions of individuals, single and combined, which overlook or disregard a kindred biological truth.

    -Fostering the good for nothing at the expense of the good, is an extremely cruelty. It is a deliberate storing-up of miseries for future generations.

    -The development of the higher creation is a progress toward a form of being capable of a happiness undiminished by these drawbacks. It is in the human race that the consummation is to be accomplished.

    -There are many very amiable people- people over whom in so far as their feelings are concerned we may fitly rejoice- who have not the nerve to look this matter fairly in the face.
     
     

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    Herbert Spencer
    Melissa Braun, 2001

     Spencer 
        * Herbert Spencer lived from 1820-1903. 
        * He was an individualist. 
        * Spencer believed that the functions of the state were limited to protection, that no restrictions should be placed on commerce
    and no provision made for social welfare or education. 
        * He believed that civilization was a process in which man adjusted to an increasingly complex environment. 
        * In his beliefs, he concluded that the whole effort of nature was to get rid of the inefficient and to make room for better. If they were  not sufficiently complete to live, they died, and it was best that they should die. 
     

    The Study of Sociology 
        * Mutual dependence of different parts within and organism is what leads to organization. 
        * If parts were completely independent and did not depend on the others for survival there would not be any organization. 
        * As organization progresses, the different functions and structures of the will be viewed as more definite and numerous. 
        * Therefore, structural traits view show distinguish lower and higher types of societies. 
        * Primitive tribes show no contrasts of parts. The men and women had similarly the same functions throughout the tribe. 
        * Only in times of war did these primitive tribes show temporary subordination to those who showed themselves the best leaders. 
        * In speaking of social organization, it shows that there must be an exchange of services. 
        * As in individual, living organisms, the structural organization develops a series of "channels" that help distribute the necessities and luxuries that have been produced by others in exchange for the necessities other individuals have made. 
        * In order for an organization to run as nature so intended, each individual in the organization should be ables to live as neither a burden to others nor to injure them. 
        * Spencer concludes with, " When a Legislature takes from the worthy the things they have laboured for, that it may give to the unworthy the things they have not earned- when cause and consequence, joined in the order of Nature, are thus divorced by 
            law-makers; then may properly come the demand ' Cease your interference'". 
        * He also says that if those not contributing to the good of society but in some way try to reap the benefits there of is cause for government intervention. 

    Social Darwinism 
        * The quality of society is lowered by the preservation of its weakest members. 
        * Its weakest members are those that are unable to contribute to society with some form of skill. 
        * Spencer believed that the protection of the weak or unworthy only leads to future generations of weakness. 
        * Protection of the weak only tires the strong and results in the weakening of the organization as a whole. 
        * Protection of the weak is in essence storing up misery for future generations. 
        * Social sciences should recognize some of the inevitable truths of Biology. 
        * In the natural order of things, society is constantly excreting its unhealthy, imbecile, slow members. 
        * The death of the weak in a society is a purification process to the organization. 

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    Curtis Volume II: 
    Herbert Spencer
    (Chad Hobbs)

    • Historical Context
      • Born 1820. Died 1893
      • British sociologist
      • Principles of individualism, libertarianism
      • Two major works: Social Statistics (1850) and The Study of Sociology (1873)
    • Social Statistics (1850)
      • Develops idea of Social Darwinism
        • Applies notion of "survival of the fittest" to human society
        • Sees poor and underclasses as "unfit" and "unworthy"
      • Elimination of the unfit makes possible fuller and better lives for the best of society.
      • Benevolent darwinism: Elimination of the "unworthy" is part of the divine plan.
    • The Study of Sociology (1873)
      • New justification for social darwinism
      • Analogy of organism
        • Not individuals, but all interacting components of the whole
        • Justifies the removal of those parts of society not conducive to the flourishing of the rest of the "organism"
      • Interdependence between groups
        • Like different organs in the body: they may perform different tasks, but all need the others
        • Example: If a member of a primitive society gives up his hunting time to make bows and arrows, he needs the hunters to provide him with food to eat. Also, the hunter needs the bows and arrows in order to kill the prey. Interdependent relationship is formed.
      • Principle of adaption
        • Copies biological principle to society

        • Believes that governments should rigorously enforce conditions that will promote the advancement of the higher classes.
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    Friedrich Nietzsche
    Todd Adams, Fall 2008

    Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher of the late 19th century who challenged the foundations of Christianity and traditional morality. He believed in life, creativity, health, and the realities of the world we live in, rather than those situated in a world beyond. Central to his philosophy is the idea of “life-affirmation,” which involves an honest questioning of all doctrines that drain life's energies, however socially prevalent those views might be. Often referred to as one of the first existentialist philosophers, Nietzsche's revitalizing philosophy has inspired leading figures in all walks of cultural life.
    Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883-5)
    • One of Nietzsche's most famous works, and Nietzsche regarded it as among his most significant.
    • 150,000 copies were printed by the German government and issued as inspirational reading, along with the Bible, to the young soldiers during WWI.
    • The Overman (Übermensch) is a self-mastered individual who has achieved his full power. Man as a race is merely a bridge between animals and the overman. 
    • The Eternal Recurrence is the idea that all events that have happened will happen again, infinitely many times.
    • The Will To Power is the fundamental component of human nature. Everything we do is an expression of the will to power. The will to power is a psychological analysis of all human action, accentuated by self-overcoming and self-enhancement. Contrasted with living for procreation, pleasure, or happiness, the will to power is the summary of all man's struggle against his surrounding environment as well as his reason for living in it.
    • Numerous criticisms of Christianity, in particular Christian values of good and evil and its purported lie of an afterlife. Nietzsche sees the complacency of Christian values as shackles to the achievement of overman as well as on the human spirit. 
    Beyond Good and Evil (1886) 
    • Expands on the ideas of Thus Spoke Zarathustra, but approached from a more critical, polemic direction. 
    • Nietzsche attacks past philosophers for their alleged lack of critical sense and their blind acceptance of Christian premises in their consideration of morality. 
    • The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favor of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspective nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual.
    • Nietzsche identified imagination, self-assertion, danger, originality and the “creation of values” as qualities of genuine philosophers.
    • Nietzsche took aim at some of the world's great philosophers, who grounded their outlooks upon concepts such as “self-consciousness,” “free will,” and “either/or” bipolar thinking.
    • Nietzsche philosophizes from the perspective of life located beyond good and evil, and challenges the entrenched moral idea that exploitation, domination, injury to the weak, destruction and appropriation are universally objectionable behaviors.
    • Above all, he believes that living things aim to discharge their strength and express their “will to power” — a pouring-out of expansive energy that naturally can entail danger, pain, lies, deception, and masks.
    • Nietzsche views things from the perspective of life; he further denies that there is a universal morality applicable indiscriminately to all human beings.
    • He designates a series of moralities in an order of rank that ascends from the plebeian to the noble: some moralities are more suitable for subordinate roles; some are more appropriate for dominating and leading social roles.
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    Hitler- Mein Kampf
     Liz Arnett 2005

    -“All the human culture, all the results of art, science, and technology that we see before us
     today, are almost exclusively the creative product of the Aryan.”

     -“He is the Prometheus of mankind from whose bright forehead the divine spark of genius has
     spring at all times, forever kindling anew that fire of knowledge which illuminate the night of
     silent mysteries and thus caused man to climb the path to mastery over the other being of this
     earth.”

     -Hitler believes that Aryans are the founders of culture and that they have plans for all human
     progress. 

     -He claims that when fate leads the Aryans toward special conditions, their latent abilities begin
     to develop in a more rapid sequence and to mold themselves into tangible forms. 

     -Hitler says that it is necessary for the Aryans to have “lower” human beings to work for them
     because otherwise they would have never been able to create the future culture: just like if the
     Aryans couldn’t reach this without the help of various suitable beasts which he knew how to
     tame, he would have never arrived at a technology which is now gradually permitting him to do
     without these beasts.

     -Therefore the formation of higher cultures needs the existence of lower human types because it
     was an essential precondition since they alone were able to compensate for the lack of
     technical aides, and without that higher development is not conceivable.

     -Hitler says that it is no accident that the first cultures arose in places where Aryans lived
     because with this encounter the Aryan was able to subjugate them and bend them to his will.

     -Hitler felt that even though Aryan’s might have been hard on these lower human’s, he was
     actually giving them a fate that was better than their previous so-called “freedom”.

     -When Aryans began to mix there blood once these lower humans learned his language and
     raise themselves up, the Aryan lost his culture capacity until he not only mentally but also
     physically began to resemble the subjected aborigines more than his own ancestors.

     -To Hitler, this is when civilizations fell apart because they had no supreme race, and that
     empire that have fallen is not because of war but because of the loss of that force of resistance
     which is contained only in the pure blood. 

     -Very opposite of the Marxist doctrine because this folkish philosophy finds the importance of
     mankind in its basic racial elements. Thus there is no equality among the races, but instead by
     recognizing their higher or lesser value, they feel obligated to  promote the victory of the better
     and stronger and demand the subordination of the inferior and weaker in accordance with the
     eternal will that dominates this universe.

     -“States that don’t serve this purpose are misbegotten monstrosities in fact. The fact of their
     existence changes this no more than the success of a gang of bandits can justify robbery.”

     -Therefore Aryans see the state as something that not only assures the preservation of this
     nationality, but by the development of its spiritual and ideal abilities leades it to the highest
     freedom.
     
     

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    Elitists
    by Brandy Smith, 2003
    Three writers, Vilfredo Pareto, Gaetano Mosca, and Roberto Michels studied the manner in which
    power was obtained and maintained, the interaction between the ruling group and the masses and
    the use made of force, myth and symbols. 
    Mosca argued in The Ruling Class the existence in all societies of a minority wielding power. His
    theory did not imply autocracy, but advocated juridical defense, a separation of church and
    state, and of economic and political power. 
        Pareto wrote of an elitist ruling class in The Mind and Society. This was based on a
    psychological analysis of human behavior. The distinctions that Pareto made between actions
    based on reason and actions based on emotion, and between logical and non-logical conduct are
    often imprecise and unenlightening. 
        Michels came up with an iron law of oligarchy in Political Parties. He also believed that
    power was held in the hands of a minority. He stated that disputes took place between the
    groups dominated by the minorities. 
        All three writers were interested in the way control was maintained. Michels explained that
    the elite was concerned only with power while the mass was interested only in better material
    conditions. Pareto held that the elite convinced the mass that it was worthy of ruling and made
    them nationalists. Mosca thought that if men were not convinced that things would be better, it
    would be difficult to get them to the barricades. 

    Pareto, The Mind and Society 
         Pareto gives every individual an index for every branch of human activity. This index is a
    sign of his or her capacity with 10 being the highest. He states that if you make a class of
    the people who have the highest indices in their branch of activity, you have a class of elite.
    This can further be broken down into governing elite and non-governing elite. Sometimes the
    majority of individuals belonging to the higher class actually posses the qualities requisite
    for staying there and then there are cases in which they don’t. 

    Mosca, The Ruling Class
        Mosca states that there are two classes, a class that rules and a class that is ruled. This
    applies all societies. Each political organism has one head or in some cases two or three
    people who have supreme control. The masses exert a certain amount of influence on the ruling
    no matter what type of political organization. The man who is head is unable to govern without
    the support of the class to respect him. 

    Michels, Political Parties
        The bureaucrat identifies himself completely with the organization. If the party is
    criticized, the leader takes it as a personal affront. This presents him as harmless in an
    unwarranted attack to unite the party. The leader makes it appear as if the party itself is
    attacked rather than the leader. Michels also states that society cannot exist without a
    “dominant” or “political” class. 

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    Pareto, “The Mind and Society”
    By R. Walker Garrett, 2003
     Those who elite are given in society a theoretical number value from 0 to 10 with ten being elite and zero being a waste of space. Whether your profession be that of a thief, lawyer, theologian, or chess player, how successful you are in your craft determines your level of influence. 
    Within the elite, some are part of a subclass of those who govern and those who do not govern. 
    Within a population there are three different sections: the non-elite (no political influence), the governing elite, and non-governing elite.
     The governing elite includes those who would assume political power such as senators, ministers, deputies, chief justices, generals, colonels, etc. The circulation of the elites is determined by the current conditions. During a time of war it is necessary to have more military governing officials than that of a time of piece. At times when industry is failing, more professional, nonpolitical, non-governing elites are required. 
     In society there is a ruling upper stratum and the ruled lower stratum. The upper stratum usually called the aristocracy, does not last. They die out as can be seen with the bloodlines of the Normans, Romans, and Franks. The reasoning for this is that as the numbers decay, so does the quality of those within the aristocratic bloodline as their vibrancy fades. 
     The governing elite though slowing changing in and of itself, is many times changed by revolutions and other disturbances that occur from within the lower strata of society. Members of the ruled class begin to develop qualities to enable them to rise up, usually led by a member of the higher strata which will handle the tactical aspect of their revolution.
     Sometimes force may be considered to control insurgents within a government, yet the partisan detests the use of force. Punishment for crimes is producing less of an impact as criminals either receive no conviction or are given pardons. In summarization of the trend, a government cannot use force effectively against it enemies because it will be condemned for produced any deaths or even placing any offenders in prison. The contradiction is that a group of citizens may coerce the government through means of force to bend to their will, but the government cannot do return that force. The government generally attempts means of diplomacy or attempts to buy safety. 
     Governments tend to make economic wars against the weak rather than attempting to stand up to a threat of equal or greater magnitude. 
     The lower strata regimes which may be set up by revolution also tend to fall as they lack strong leadership and are unorganized. In some cases, the upper strata will rise to the call of war and prepare a defense combining their leadership and new energy to defend their position. Even when over thrown, it is only a matter of time before a new upper strata emerges in any society. 
     
     

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    Elitists

                                                                  By Gabriel Thorn, 2001

     The Elitists were a group three writers who came together near the turn
    of the twentieth century with a common dissatisfaction for the current
    ways of political thinking and an assertion that politics must be
    understood in a more realistic fashion.  Gaetano Mosca, Roberto Michels,
    and Vilfredo Pareto all maintained that power is always held by a
    minority, or an elitist group, who controlled the masses and made the
    decisions.
       The three writers did not agree on everything.  Mosca denounced both
    sovereign tyranny as well as tyranny of the people.  Michels was
    influenced by both socialism and syndicalism.  Pareto was a conservative
    who was avidly against pacifism and international brotherhood.
       Despite the differences in some areas, the three agreed that in some
    form or another the elite exerted a sort of reverence from the masses
    whom they governed.  Mosca believed that they relied on illusions and
    myths, while Michels held that the masses had a superstitious reverence
    for the elite.  Pareto thought that the elite used a myth as a means of
    making their subjects accept their worthiness to rule.
                                               Mosca
    • Mosca says that all societies have essentially two classes: the ruling and the ruled.
    • Each political organization has one person at the head of it in charge.
    • The masses always have an effect on the ruling class’s policy, no matter what type of government.
    • Classifications of governments are mainly superficial in that they go
    from technicalities instead of the actual function.
    • Minorities organize more easily, and so they can hold power over the unorganized majority.
    • Ruling authorities usually have some trait, real or apparent, that
    makes them more esteemed than the others around them.
    • Rulers try to justify their authority through a logical reasoning as to why they should rule.
    • Representatives “have themselves elected by the voters”, meaning that
    the voters have few choices in their representation.
    • Referendums keep representative assemblies from becoming tyrannical

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    Mosca "the elitists" The Ruling Class
    by Jarret Layson, 2002

    --in all societies two classes of people appear... 

         a class that rules 
         and a class that is ruled 

    --the rulers perform all political functions, monopolizes power and enjoys the advantages that
    power brings 
    --the ruled are directed and controlled by the rulers, in a manner that is now more or less legal,
    now more or less arbitrary and violent, and of subsistence and with the instrumentalities that are
    essential to the vitality of the political organism 
    --the management of public affairs is in the hands of a minority of influential persons, to which
    management, willingly or unwillingy, the majority defer 
    --two political facts 

         in every political organism there is one individual who is cheif among the leaders of the
         ruling class as a whole and stands at the helm of the state 
         whatever the type of political organization, pressures arising from the discontent of the
         masses who are governed, from the passions by which they are swayed, exert a certain
         amount of influence on the policies of the ruling, the political, class 

    --from the point of view of scientific research the real superiority of the concept of the ruling
    class lies in the fact that the varying structure of ruling classes has a preponderant importance in
    determining the political type, and also the level of civilization, of the different peoples 
    --if it is easy to understand that a single individual cannot command a group without finding
    within the group a minority to support him, it is rather difficult to grant that minorities rule
    majorities, rather than majorities minorities 
    --in reality the dominion of an organized minority over the unorganized majority is obeying a
    single impulse, over the unorganized majority is inevitable 
    --mimbers of a ruling minority regularly have some attribute which is highly esteemed and very
    influential in the society in which they live 
    --in fairly populous societies that have attained a certain level of civilization, ruling classes do not
    justify their power exclusively by de facto possession of it, but try to find a moral and legal
    basis for it 
    --the legal and moral basis on which the power of the political class rests, is the "political
    formula" which can't be the same in two or more different societies 
    --"political formulas" answer a real need in man's social nature of governing and knowing that
    one is governed on the basis of a moral principle 
    --it is commonly believed that the only free, equitable and legitimate government is a
    government that is based upon the will of the majority 
    --in a representative government the representative has himself elected by the voters or has his
    freinds have him elected 
    --if each voter gave his vote to the candidate of his heart, we may be sure that in almost all
    cases the only result would be a wide scattering of votes 
    --the great majority of voters are passive, in the sense that they have not so much freedom to
    choose their representatives as a limited right to exercise an option among a number of
    candidates 
    --the masses are not always any wiser in discerning and protecting their interests than their
    representatives are 
    --in a representative system if all the voters that have some influence are members of one or
    another of the organized minorities it is impossible for the latter to exercise their right of option
    and control in any real or effective manner 
    --the majorities do not feel the moral and material influence of the "better elements," but when
    the "better elements" do succeed in withdrawing the majority from the influence of committees
    and win its vote, their control over the conduct of the organized minorities becomes effective 
    --the real juridical safeguad in representative governments lies in the public discussion that takes
    place within representative assemblies 
    --governments that are based very largely on the repreesentative principle the referendum is in
    some respects a fairly effective instrument 

    Continued by Kristin Goodrich, 2001

    Pareto: Mind and Society
        1. social equilibrium: dividing  humans into classes; giving rank of each position and dividing
    further the elite class, which consist of the higher ranking positions, into a governing elite
    includingindividuals the directly or indirectly play a role in government and the non governing elite
            A. two strata of populations
                1. lower stratum, non elite
                2. higher stratum, elite
                    a. governing elite
                    b. non governing elite
        2. aristocracies do not last
            A.  decay in numbers and quality, often due to mixing of classes and the complication between
    supply and demand
    EXAMPLE: when the elite consist of numerous generals during peacetime it conflicts with war which
    requiers numerous generals, the problem arises in qualifications of generals and whether to save
    numerous reserves in peace time or less in peacetime and develop lower stratum in elite
        3. argument for or against use of force
            A. for: able to conform disadence
            B. against: allowing uniformity to be disrupted
                a. force in relation to enimies is acceptable in vagueness; without numerous deaths
                b. a contridiction occurs in distinction of private and political crimes
                c. to prevent or resist violence government uses diplomacy
        4. revolution transfer power to a new governing class reinforcement in instincts of group
    persistence, gives way to faith
        5. most effective energy for unity in a country arises in the masses influincing the higher classes
    by combining leadership and faith

    Michels:Political Parties
        1. bureaucrat identifies himself with organization, formulating his own intrest with the organizations
    intrest
        2. if a leader is attacked personally he must claim it is an attack on the party, the initiative is to
    gain respect for party and have power in numbers
        3. the bureacracy which is most faithful is the one that is more dictorial 
        4. Iron Law of Oligarchy
            A. society can not exist without " dominant" or " political " class
            B. aim of minority is to impose " legal order" 

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    Max Weber
    by Jeremy Lewis, Fall 2009

    Types of authority:

    traditional (domination by patriarch)
    charismatic (personal confidence, natural leadership, gift of grace)
    rational-legal (authority given to public officials)
    A professional politician who lives off salary may assume the stance of an entrepreneur

    Politics and ethics

    pre-eminent qualities: warm passion (for a cause), responsibility and cool sense of proportion
    must be committed to a cause and yet avoid being diverted into vanity
    influence of Calvinism stimulates economic development (capitalism and the protestant work ethic)

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    Harold Laski 
    -  From the Foundations of Sovereignty (1921) 
    and Studies in the Problem of Sovereignty (1917) 
    (Joseph Hollis, 2001)
    The Illusion of Sovereignty 

         Political Theory is ideal - At best, there is no "pure" instance, only doubtful application 
         The intention to do good is not consistent with good itself 
         The starting point of inquiry is the relationship between the government the people 
         Legal theory in comparison to political philosophy 

    The Pluralistic State 

         Denies the right of force 
         Sets group competing against group in ceaseless striving for progressive expansion 
         Calls for constant examination of the State 
         Validates everyone's will 
         No pluralism can avoid individualism 
         If one disagrees with the state, or another sector within government, it's evident that real thought is
         present 

    "It is from the selection of variations, not from the preservation of uniformities that progress is born."

    False Claim to Unlimited Authority 

         "When we say that political institutions aim at the good life, we need to know the meaning of good,
         those who are to achieve it, and how its going to be attained" 
         The judgement must depend upon how the common masses of men and women are affected 
         Historically, govt. is dominated by those who have economic power (And their good is - for the
         most part, the preservation of their own interests) 
         A monistic state is a hierarchial structure in which power is collected at the single center 
         There is a conflict of jurisdictions in the federal system 
         A law cannot be explained merely as the command of the sovereign 
         "No such will can by definition be  good will, and that the individual must therefore, whether by
         himself or in concert with others, pass judgement upon its validity by examing its substance" 
         After the classical conception of the sovereign state is made to end, the acts of government are on a moral parity with the acts of any other association... 

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    Harold Laski: 
    Chad Hobbs, 2000

    1. Laski

    • Sovereignty
      • Those with power will equate their particular good with the general good.
      • Important to decipher between willing what is right, and knowing what is right to will.
      • The social interests translated into legal rights are almost always those of a limited group of men.

      •  
    • Pluralism
      • Group competing against group in a ceaseless striving of progressive expansion.
      • It is from the selection of variations, not the preservation of uniformities, that progress is born.
      • "We shall make the basis of our state consent to disagreement. Therein shall we ensure its deepest harmony."

      •  
    • Unlimited Authority
      • Governments are dominated by those who, at the time, wield the economic power.
      • What this group means by "good" is the preservation of their own self interests.
      • The last sin in politics is unthinking acquiescence in important decisions.
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    Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy
    by Elizabeth McLain, 2004 (another below)

    Taken from Chapter 22 about "Competition for Political Leadership"

    -People choose "representatives" who will see to it that thier opinion is carried out.
    -In this case, deciding political issues is in the power of the
    elctorate. Actually electing the person comes second to this.
    -Suppose the situation was reversed and the deciding of issues was
    second to the election of men who are to do the deciding.
    -This makes it the role of the people to produce government.
    -He defines the democratic method as an "institutional arrangement for
    arriving at a political decision in which individuals acquire the power
    to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people's vote."
    -Seven Points:
    1. Distinguishing Democratic governments from others. This is difficult
    because both the will and the good of the people may be, and in many
    cases have been, served just as well or better by governments that
    cannot be described as democratic. Ex: British parliamentary monarchy.
    2. Proper recognition of the vital fact of leadership.
    3. Genuine group-wise volitions. Ex: the will of the unemployed to
    receive unemployment or the will of other groups to help. These things
    may remain latent until some political leader turns them into political factors.
    4. Leadership competiton compared to economic competition. There is
    always competition in both.
    5. Relationship between democracy and individual freedom. No society
    tolerates absolute freedom. The question is to what degree. Anyone in a
    democracy has the freedom to go to thier electorate and express their opinions.
    6. Primary function of the electorate to produce government. First you
    need acceptance of the leader or group of leaders, then, there may be a
    withdrawal of exceptance. Electorates usually have no power over the
    leader except getting them re-elected. It is exceptional that this
    would not be the case, but not impossible. However, if this were the
    case that a leader had all of the power, this would not be in the
    democratic spirit.
    7. Classical doctrine of democracy. Democratic method is to guarantee
    that issues be decided and policies framed according to the will of the
    people. Simple majorities may distort this though. It is usually the
    will of the majority and not the will of the "people."
    -These have accepted much criticsm. 
    -The principle of democracy merely means that the reins of government
    should be handed to those who command more support than do any of the
    competing individuals and teams. 


    Curtis v.2:  Joseph Schumpeter 
    (Tabitha Chenault, 2001) 

    Excerpt 1:  Sociology, Psychology, and Pluralism 

              born:  1883, died:  1950 
              wrote , Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy in 1942 
              thought Marx did a good job on the decline of capitalism even though history had prove the
              misery of the proletariat wrong 
              capitalist expansion was led by entrepreneurs 
                   led to establishment of new firms and bank loans 
                   businesses repaid loans--led to deflation--then readjustment of the economy 
              capitalism increased production, raised wages, improved social services and technology 
                   less opportunities to invest and change in industry
              capitalism might fail because of opposition 
              capitalism undermined institutions that created it 
              socialism would succeed because it did not worry about profit or profit mechanism

    Excerpt 2:  From Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 

         major problem: people all have different opinions and give their opinions to their representatives 
         selection of representatives made secondary to the major purpose of democracy--invest powers of
         political issues to electorate 
         role of the people now to produce government 
         able to produce clearly defined government for democracy, because the will and good of the
         people are the most important
         parliamentary monarchy could almost be considered a democracy because it has to appoint the
         same cabinet as parliament would 
         classical theory-electorate ignored leadership, contradicts this-collectives by accepting
         leadership-the idea of collectives is more realistic 
         the way political leaders interact with he unemployed and help groups--the interaction between
         sectional interests and public opinion and pattern results in public situation being much more
         defined 
         competition for leadership-we have restricted competition to "free competition for a free vote." 
              no society tolerates complete freedom 
              with everyone free to compete for political leadership, this means an extensive freedom of
              discussion for all 
         primary function of electorate to produce a government-not true, we elect leaders and they
         produce government 

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