Leafy campus
Huntingdon College Political Science Program
PSC 307: Public Policy Analysis.
Spring 2000 and 2002 Student Notes on
Thomas Dye, Understanding Public Policy.
Chapter Numbers are presently from old edition.
Compiled by Jeremy Lewis, revised 29 Jan 2002.
Chap. 01: Policy Analysis (2002)
Chap. 02: Models of Politics (2000)
Chap. 03: Civil Rights: Elite and Mass Interaction (2000)
Chap. 04: Criminal Justice (2000)
Chap. 05: Health and Welfare (2000)
Chap. 06: Education (2000)
Chap. 07: Environmental Policy (2000)
Chap. 08: Defense Policy
Chap. 09: Economic Policy  (2000)
Chap. 10: Tax Policy (2000 -- two versions)
Chap. 11: International Trade and Immigration (2000)
Chap. 12: American Federalism
Chap. 13: Inputs, Outputs -- State Policies
Chap. 14: Policymaking Process (2000)
Chap. 15: Policy Evaluation (2000)

Chap. 01: Policy Analysis
Amy West (2002)

Policy-public policy is whatever government chooses to do or not to do/ a projected program of goals, values and practices.
 -today people expect government to do a great many things for them
 -understanding the causes and consequences of policy decisions improves our knowledge of society
 -policy studies helps us learn about the linkage between social and economic conditions in society
 -policy studies incorporate the ideas and methods of economics, sociology, anthropology, psycology, history, law and public
 -public policy can be studied for political purposes to ensure that the nation adopts the "right" policies to achieve the "right" goals
 -policy analysis is finding out what governments do, why they do it and what difference, if any it makes
 -learning about the consequences of public policy is often referred to as policy evaluation

policy analysis involves
1. a concern with explanation rather than presumption
2. a rigorous search of the causes and consequences of public policy
3. an effort to develop test general propositions about the causes and consequences of public policy and to accumulate reliable
findings of general relevance.

  -questionable that policy analysis can ever "solve" America's problems
  -policy analysis cannot offer solutions to problems when there is no general agreement on what the problems are
  -it cannot solve value conflicts
  -policy analysis is one activity for which there can be no fixed programs

Chap. 2 - Models of Politics

1. Models of Politics - used to simplify, identify certain aspects, understand and explain policies

A. Institutional Model

  1. Describe specific institutions and certain aspects of those institutions
- structures, organization, duties, and functions B. Process Model - identify problem, set agenda, formulate policy, implementation, evaluation C. Group Theory D. Elite Theory E. Rational Model F. Incrementalism G. Game Theory H. Public Choice I. Systems Theory 2. How to Tell if the Models are Helping. Do They:
  1. Order and simplify reality
  2. Identify what is significant
  3. Congruent with reality
  4. Provide meaningful communication
  5. Direct inquiry and research
  6. Suggest explanations

Chapter 3 - "Civil Rights: Elite and Mass Interaction"

Three main propositions:

  1. Civil rights policy is a response of a rational elite
  2. Elite opinion leads mass opinion, not vice-versa
  3. Conflict between mass and elite will define the limits of civil rights policy
Development of Civil Rights Policy Elite Power in Society Civil Rights Movement Gender Policy Abortion and the Right to Life Conclusion: Problem: shift the definition of "elite"

Chapter 4 - Criminal Justice

-Crime fighting strategy is deterrence: to make cost of committing crime greater than benefits

- Strategy focuses on:

1. certainty- crime= costly punishment

2. swiftness- justice must be swift

3. severity- it has to be harsh

- Author argues that crime is down and that it can be attributed to, crackdowns, community policing and longer prison sentences.

- Makes point that juvenile crime is on the rise and attributes it to their lax punishment. He feels as though in the juvenile sector there is an absence of deterrence

- Argues that American justice is not a deterrent - lacks swiftness, certainty and severity.

- He blames crime rate on:

1. Social Heterogeneity

2. Socialization and Control

3. Irrational Crime

4.Innate Aggression

5. Deterrence vs. Liberty

- Dye makes the point that crime ends up paying off in the criminals eyes.

- Public now expects federal involvement in law enforcement we see this through:

  1. Law Enforcement Act of 1994
  2. Federal Gun Control Act of 1968
  3. Brady Law



    - Development of policies in Criminal Justice is complicated by conflicting values.

    Due Process vs. fight crime

    - Death Penalty:

    - no deterring effect

    - falls short because of racial bias and infrequency of use

    - as crime gets worse, may become necessary


    Dye 4 Criminal Justice

    -Crime fighting strategy is deterrence: to make cost of committing crime

    greater then benefits committing the crime.

    -Deterrence Strategy focuses on:

    1. certainty- crime= costly punishment

    2. swiftness- justice must be swift

    3. severity- it has to be harsh
    - Author argues that crime is down and that it can be attributed to, crackdowns, community policing and longer prison sentences.

    - Makes point that juvenile crime is on the rise and attributes it to their lax punishment. He feels as though in the juvenile sector that there is an absence of deterrence and this adds to criminal behavior.

    - Book argues that American system of justice is not a deterrent because it lacks swiftness, certainty and severity.

    -He blames crime rate on:
    1. Social Heterogeneity
    2. Socialization and Control
    3. Irrational Crime
    4.Innate Aggression
    5. Deterrence vs. Liberty

    - Dye makes the point that crime ends up paying off in the criminals eyes.

    - Public now expects federal involvement in law enforcement we see this through:
    Law Enforcement Act of 1994
    Federal Gun Control Act of 1968
    Brady Law

    - Books says that development of policies in Criminal Justice is complicated by conflicting values. On one hand we are committed to due process, yet we are also determined to fight crime.(one is a fast process, the other slow)

    - He ends by looking at the Death Penalty. He believes it has no deterring effect and that it falls short because of racial bias and infrequency of use. Although he still makes the argument that as crime
    gets worse more people want to use it.

    Chapter 5: Health and Welfare

    - Poor are not principal beneficiaries of social welfare. Only 1/6 goes to low incomes.

    - Entitlements: govít benefits for which Congress has a set criteria-anyone meeting them may receive benefits

    - Largest amounts of entitlement spending goes to Social Security, Medicare, and Vet. & Fed. retirement

    - Rational approach to social welfare is difficult due to nature and extent of poverty

    - SSA of 1935 helps establish a basic framework

    - Depression produces realization that poverty is not always individuals fault, from this, comes various types of insurances:

  1. Social Security- most expensive program in federal budget
  2. Medicare- health services for the elderly
  3. Medicaid- health services for the poor (largest welfare to the poor)
  4. Food Stamps
  5. Temporary assistance for Needy families
- Clash in Values over charity: - Can social welfare policies create poverty by eliminating incentives to work

- Health care reform focuses on 2 major problems:

- Important because everyone has a stake in the national health care system

Chapter 6 Education

I. Goals of Education

A) Resolve racial conflicts and build an integrated society
B) Inspire patriotism and good citizenship
C) Provide Values
D) Various forms of recreation and entertainment
E) Reduce conflict
F) Basically everything except educate

II. Battling Over the Basics

A. Citizen groups that have an interest in education

1. Parents
2. Taxpayers
3. Employers

B. Public Strongly Support:

1. The 3 "Ďrís"
a. Reading
b. Writing
c. Arithmetic

2. Enforcing minimum standards with testing
3. Testing teachers for mastery of basic skills

C. SAT scores

1. SAT scores where declining due to more students taking the test
2. College Board recentered scores in 1996 to boost scores
3. Now more than 500 students a year make a perfect 1600

D. Global Comparison

1. Performance of 500,000 U.S. 13 year olds tested compared with 42 nations was 28 in math and 17 in science. 2. The top nations had a cultural value for education and is valued in the family

E. Nation at Risk
1. 1983 report by National Commission on Excellence in Education (A Nation at Risk) recommended a back to the basics reform

a. Minimum high school curriculum of 4 years of English, 3 yrs of math, 3 yrs of social science, and ½ year of computer science b. 4-6 yrs of foreign language beginning in elementary school
c. standardized testing for achievement
d. more homework, a 7 hr school day, and a 200-220 day school year
e. reliable grades and standardized tests for promotion and graduation
f. "performance based" salaries for teachers

F. Testing

1. Minimum Competence Testing (MCT)

a. test used for the need of remedial education or requirement for promotion or graduation
b. about ½ the states require these test and are usually on 8th or 9th grade lv
c. Educators fear this will start teaching to the test education
d. some charge the test are racially biased
G. Teacher Testing 1. NEA opposes all teacher testing, but the AFT willing to accept competency testing only for new teachers III. Educational Groups

A. Citizens vs. Professionals

1. Citizens are often pitted against professional educators about education policy
2. Citizen groups believe education should be a local matter through elected school boards
3. Elected school boards do not have the knowledge to deal with todayís issues
4. Superintendents are full time administrators who receives advice from professionals and sets the agenda for board meetings
5. Professional educators feel politics should be left out of schools but citizens want to have control
B.Professional educators
1. School teachers: largest group - about 2 million
2. School administrators - most powerful
3. Faculties of teacher colleges and dept of educations at universities

C. Teacher Unions
1. NEA: National Education Association - largest
2. AFT: American Federation of Teachers - small, affiliated with AFL-CIO

D. Voters and Taxpayers
1. Voters that turn out for elections or school referendum votes
2. The larger the voter turnout the less likely a school bill will be passed

E. School Boards
1. Selected largely from concerned parents and civic leaders

F. Racial and Religious groups
1. Groups like NAACP, National Catholic Education Conference, American Jewish Congress, etc
2. Have fought battles over segregation, racial issues, prayer and Bible reading
3. Community- based religious groups fight for return of traditional moral values

IV. Federal Government Role in Education
A. Traditionally education has been the responsibility of local community, later it became the responsibility of the state, federal govít is just a spectator
B. State and local taxpayers have always borne 90% of public education costs
C. Early Federal Aid
1. Started off as land grants and later went to free lunches then to financial aid

1. Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965
2. Single largest fedíl aid to education programs
3. Poverty-impacted schools were principal benefactors

E. Educational Block Grants
1. Reagan administration consolidated all education funds into the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act in 1981 into single block grants for states and communities
2. Purpose was to give state and local districts greater discretion over the use of fedíl educational aid

F. Head Start
1. Most popular federal educational aid program came from LBJís war on poverty
2. Provide special preschool preparation to disadvantaged children before entering k or 1st grade
3. No conclusive evidence it is effective but politically popular

G. Federal Aid and Educational Quality
1. Educational achievement is dependent on how money is spent, not how much

V. Educational Reform and Parental Choice

A. Goals 2000
1. Clintonís policy designed to enhance natíl educational goals developed by Bush and state governors
a. Every Child must start school ready to learn
b. High school graduation rate will be increased to at least 90%
c. US students become 1st in world in math and science
d. Every adult American will become literate
e. Every school in the US will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment cohesive to learning

2. Not clear how they were to be achieved
3. Act specifically denies govít control of curriculum, instruction, and allocation of state and local education

B. Clinton Initiatives
1. Supported Natís testing and proposed additional federal funds for school construction, tax credits and deductions for college tuition
2. Issue of who will set Natíl standards and how to measure achievement

C. What works?
1. Research shows children do better when schools are seen as an extension of their families

D. Parental Choice
1. Parental choice is suppose to encourage competition whis in turn encourages academic advancement
2. Allow parents to make educators give students what they want or they risk a large loss in enrollment

E. Charter schools
1. Community educational groups sign a charter with their school district or state authority tp establish their own school
2. Have to show specific student achievement
3. Results unknown b/c have few established schools

F. Magnet Schools
1. Specialized schools in academic areas, or adopted by businesses etc
2. Have reputation for quality and specialized instruction, recommended for inner city areas to attract white pupils

G. Privatized Public Schools
1. A private profit-making corporation makes a contract with the school districts
2. lower cost to school districts
3. Opposed by public school administrators, public school teachers, and unions

H. Educational Values
1. Vouchers that would be given to parents to spend at any school, public or prv
2. All public and private schools would compete equally for students and state education funds would flow to those schools that enrolled more students
3. Strong Opposition especially by professional school administrators and state and educational agencies
4. Sat it interrupts educational planning and threatens vitality of schools
5. Some fear public education will be undermined and divert money from public schools to private schools

VI. Battle over school financing
A. Inequality among districts
1. Money in schools depends on the amount of economic resources
2. Most money comes from land taxes so schools with little land has little money

B. Constitutional issue
1. Supreme court says it is not a violation of 14th amendment
2. State courts are making legislators do something about it

VII. Public Policy and Higher Education
A. Public Universities
1. 3/4 of college students go to public colleges or universities

B. Federal Aid
1. State government carries the major burden of higher education
2. Fed government directly assists many college students through grants and loans

C. Student Assistance
1. Pell Grants
2. Stafford Loans
3. Perkins Loan
4. Work Study
5. Most financial aid is given to middle class students

D. Research money is given to large Universities for scientific research

VIII. Groups in higher education

A. Trustees: set broad policy directions and keep higher education from becoming politically saturated by governors and legislators B. Presidents: chief spokesperson to maintain support and delegate responsibilities

C. Faculty

D. unions: AAUP-American Association of University Professors and AFT

E. Students - least influential of all groups

IX Reading Writing and Religion

A. Separation of church and state comes from first amendment
B. Does not prohibit adoption of programs that help all children
C. Prayer is unconstitutional in almost all ways

Chapter 7: Environmental Policy
I Public Choice and the Environment II Environmental Externalities III Interest Group Effects IV Political Involvement V Alternative Solutions

Chap. 9 Economic Policy

-economic policy is exercised through

fiscal policies: decisions about taxation, spending and deficit levels

monetary policies: money supply and interest rates

-decided by federal spending levels

-fiscal and monetary policies have small changes at existing levels

-goals of economic policy

growth in economic output and standards of living, full and productive

employment of the nations work force and stable prices with low inflation

-this type of policy making is an example of incrementalism because it uses last years spending to decide present years budgeting

-Theories used in this type of policy making:

macroeconomics: tries to explain economic cycles and to prescribe

governmental policies to counter inflation and recession

classical: view market economy as self adjusting mechanism

Keynesian: economic stability product of fluctuations in demands, written into employment act of 1946-promotes "maximum employment production and purchasing power"

- Reagan used Supply side economics - long term growth is more important than short term demand- free market is better equip than government to bring lower prices and supply and demand

- Clinton used Enterprise Economics- government is responsible to stimulate growth- and invest in

- Monetarist Economics- stability can be achieved only by holding rate of money and economic growth at the same pace

-govnít spending has grown because of "Uncontrollable benefits" ex:

- Social Security is the largest item in the budget while Medicare and

Medicaid are the fastest growing

-Burden of Debt ( p. 229) govenít spends more than it recieves in revenues and this drives up the debt..things that cause this:

- Formal Budgetary Process & Spending Agencies p.234

OMB in the executive office- has key responsibility for budget preparation (president has no formal powers over taxing and spending

house and Senate budget committees- they established the CBO to review presidential budget after submission to congress

Appropriations Act- provides money for spending, nothing can be spent w/o it

Appropriations Committees- used for specific appropriations in both houses

(more in the house than the senate)

Revenue Act-House committee on ways and means and the senate finance

committee work mostly with taxation

Presidential Veto

Continuing Resolutions and "Shutdowns"- any govnít agency that does not pass an appropriations act may not take money from the treasury and is obligated to shut down continuing resolutions allows a way around this

Chapter 10: Tax Policy


-there is no better illustration of the influence of interest groups in policymaking than natíal tax policy

-tax laws treat different types of income differently

-unfairness, complexity, & inefficiency of tax laws can be attributed to interest groups

-Tax Reform Act 1986, IGs suffer defeat

Federal Tax System

-total revenues from taxes and fees consistently fail to match total spending by the gov

Individual Income Taxes

- largest single source of revenue Corporate Income Taxes - 12% fed gov income Social Security Taxes - 36% fed gov income

- today taxpayers pay more in Social Security taxes than income taxes

Estate and Gift Taxes

Excise and Custom Duties

- luxury items account for 1-2% income Taxation, Fairness, and Growth

- progressive tax--high income pay higher percentage of incomes in taxes

- proportionality/flat tax--all income groups pay same rate

- universality--all types of income subject to same rates

Economic Growth

- high taxes discourage growth

- argues that if taxes were reduced, might increase gov revenue bec/ encourage growth

-Economic Recovery Tax Cut Act of 1981

    1. Reagan tax cuts take effect and nation began econ recovery
Tax Reform and Special Interests

- Tax Reform Act of 1986--reduction in tax rates in place of tax breaks

-many opponents--industry, real estate, multinational corps, oil & gas, labor unions...

Compromising with Special Interest

-key to overcoming opposition of special interests was to offer a tax rate low enough that most people would be willing to give up deductions and preferences

-bipartisan effort against special interests

Clinton,Deficits, and Taxes

- Clinton win on promise to revive econ

- Clinton propose raising taxes on affluent, elderly, corps, &energy

- Clinton and Reps agree to middle class tax cut in 1997

Tax Reform and the Flat Tax

- Flat tax--eliminate exemptions, exclusions, deductions, &special treatment with 19% tax on all form of income

-National sales tax-- replace federal income tax and get rid of IRS; penalize consumption not production

-IRS--"Simplifying tax laws would not only reduce cost of paying taxes but reassure taxpayer that system is fair..It would reduce the power of the IRS... taxpayers bill of rights might strengthen safeguards against arbitrary actions of IRS

Chapter 10: Tax Policy
Chad Hobbs
  1. There is no better illustration of the influence of interest groups in policymaking than in national tax policy
    1. Tax laws treat different types of income differently
    2. Unfairness, complexity, and inefficiency of tax laws can be attributed to interest groups
    3. Tax Reform Act of 1986, interest groups suffer defeat
  2. Federal Tax System
    1. Total revenues from taxes and fees consistently fail to match total spending by the government
    2. Individual income taxes are the largest single source of government revenue
    3. Today, people pay more in Social Security taxes than in income taxes
  3. Taxation, Fairness, and Growth
    1. Progressive taxĖhigher incomes pay higher percentage of income taxes
    2. Flat taxĖall income groups pay same tax rate
    3. UniversalityĖall types of income subject to same rates
    4. Economic growth
      1. High taxes discourage growth
      2. If taxes are reduced, might increase government revenues (supply side economics)
      3. Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981Ėtax cuts take effect and economic recovery begins; tradeoff is that growth rate of national revenue slowed
  4. Tax Reform and the Special Interests
    1. Tax Reform Act of 1986Ėreduction in tax rates in exchange for simplified tax system
    2. Many opponentsĖindustry, real estate, multinational corporations, oil & gas, labor unions, etc.
  5. Compromising with Special Interests
    1. Key to overcoming oppositio of special interests was to offer a tax rate low enough that most people would be willing to give up deductions and preferences
    2. Bipartisan effort against special interests
  6. Clinton, Deficits, and Taxes
    1. Clinton won on promise to revive economy
    2. Clinton proposes raising taxes on affluent, elderly, corporations, and energy
    3. Clinton and Republicans agree to middle class tax cut in 1997
  7. Tax Reform and the Flat Tax
    1. Eliminate exemptions, exclusions, deductions, and special treatment with a standardized rate on all forms of income
    2. National sales taxĖreplace federal income tax and get rid of IRS; penalize consumption not production
    3. IRSĖ"Simplifying tax laws would not only reduce cost of paying taxes but reassure taxpayer that the system is fair...It would reduce the power of the IRS...taxpayersí bill of rights might strengthen safeguards against arbitrary actions of the IRS."

Chap. 11: "International Trade and Immigration"
(Carrie McDonough)
Public Policy Analysis

- 1/4 of the worldís total output is sold in a country other that where is it was made
- US exports 11%--aircraft, computers,-- and imports 12%--automobiles
- Comparative Advantage--what each nation produces best & shift toward making that
- US corps want lower trade barriers around the world--lower US tariffs
- GATT--General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade--regulate international trade
- WTO--World Trade Organization--adjudicate trade disputes among nations
- IMF--International Monetary Fund--facilitate trade by lending
- World Bank--long term loans
- NAFTA--eventual removal of all tariffs between US, Can, and Mex
- Dumping--sale of foreign goods in US markets at prices lower than charged in home--Japanese automobiles
- foreign trade lower US wages
- US corps want immigration for cheap labor
- Immigration Act of 1921--max # immigrants accepted each year
- Immigration and Reform Act of 1986/ Simpson-Mazzoli Act---regulate employers hiring immigrants
- aliens have no Constitutional right to come to US, but once here that have right to due process and equal protection
- US Supreme Court mandate that state and local govít canít exclude immigrants from benefits
- Proposition 187

Chapter 14: Policymaking Process
(Amy Garrett)

I. How Policies Are Made:

A. Identify the problem
B. Agenda Setting: focus the media on the situation
C. Formulate the policy proposals
D. Legitimize policies through governmental and political groups
E. Implement policy through bureaucracies
F. Evaluate policies by governmental agencies
II. Identification: Public Opinion A. opinion-policy linkage: never know if public opinion shapes policy or if policy shapes opinion. 1. VO Key established evidence that elections, partied, and interest groups do institutionalize channels of communication from citizens to decision makers. B. policy effects: public policy shapes public opinion more often than the reverse. 1. Public opinion is unstable
2. Few people have opinions on a great bulk of policy questions
3. Leaders do not have precise view of opinion because they hear from elites
C. Media Effects: 1. News believe they are public opinion but are often wrong because they confuse their opinion with that of the public.
2. Shape public opinion by saying it is the mass opinion.
3. Decision makers respond to news because they think it is the opinion of the people.
D. Opinion Polls 1. Pollsters produce opinions because no one admits when they donít have an opinion on a subject. E. Instability of Opinion 1. Public opinion tends to be unstable.
2. Never real changes, just appear as such
F. Wording of Questions 1. Opinions vary according to the wording of the question
2. can word things to elicit approval or disapproval
G. Communicating with Policymakers 1. Decision makers can misinterpret opinion b/c of elite bias in info.
2. Congress world of opinion is self reinforcing
3. Those who write or call senators or rep. are usually more informed
III. Identifying Policy Issues: Elite Opinion A. Elite preferences are more likely to be in accord with policy than mass opinion.
B. Can be argued that decision makers are acting rationally to their argument.
IV Agenda Setting and Nondecisions

A. creating an issue, dramatizing it, calling attention to it, and pressuring government to
do something about it are important political tactics, they are tactics of agenda setting.

B. "nondecision making: occurs when influential individuals or groups or the political
system itself operates in society.

1. Happens when officials hide an issue because they fear attention to it will not be in their best interest.
2. when political candidates and office holders feel elites will not favor it.
3. The political system itself is structured in such a way as to facilitate resolution of some issues and to obstruct others.
C. "mobilization of bias": set of values which operate systematically and consistently to the benefit of others.
V. Agenda Setting and mobilizing opinion: The mass media A. Television is where a reported 2/3 of American people get their information

B. media power:

1. Media is a player and referee in politics

2. sets the agenda of public discussion

3. Concentrated with a small number of people.

4. Not much diversity in news reporting

C. Newsmaking: involves impt decisions on what is news and what is worthy of reporting 1. Media attention can create personalities and issues.

2. provide cues to audience on the importance of an issue, personality, or event

3. "Media event" arranged primarily to attract coverage and thus attention

D. Media Effects: 1. Identifying issues and setting the agenda for policymakers

2. influencing attitudes and values toward policy issues.

3. Changing behavior of voters and decision makers

4. Power of tv lies in setting the agenda for decision making

VI. Formulating Policy

A. policy formulation is the development of policy alternatives dealing with problems on
the public agenda.

B. The White House: President and the executive branch are expected to be policy
initiators and Congress the arbitrators

C. Interest groups: formulate their own policy or do so in association with Congress

D. Legislative Staffs: reflect the general view of their bosses, they research issues,
schedule legislative hearings, line up expert to testify and write and rewrite bills

E. Think Tanks: policy planning orgs are central in coordinating points in policymaking;
they bring together corporate and financial institutions, mass media, government officials, and intellectuals to reach a consensus on what action should take place.

1. Brookings Institute
2. American Enterprise Institute
3. The Heritage Foundation
4. Council on Foreign Relations
VII. Policy Legitimation The proximate policymakers A. the president, congress, congressional committees, White House Staff, and interest groups are main focus

B. the open, public, stage of policymaking

C. conclude it is a process of bargaining, competition, persuasion and compromise

D. decisions of the policymakers center around means rather than ends of policy

VIII. Party Influence on Public Opinion

A. makes relatively little difference in the major direction of public policy whether Dem

or Rep dominate the political scene

B. they are more committed to winning office than advancing policy positions IX. Policy Implementation: the Bureaucracy A. implementation is the continuation of politics by other means

B. Implementation and Policy making: all the activities designed to carry our the policies

enacted by legislative branch. Create new org., assign responsibilities, 1. These orgs translate laws, spend money, and perform tasks, etc.

2. much of the actual policymaking occurs within these orgs

C Regulation and Policymaking: develop formal rules and regulations 1. Publish rules in the Federal Register( see pg 331 for list of requirements) D. Adjudication and Policymaking: bureaucrats decide whether a person, firm, corp., comply with the laws

E. Bureaucratic Discretion and Policymaking: most bureaucracy is performing routine tasks but they decide how to apply these tasks.

F. Policy Bias of Bureaucrats: personal beliefs inspire bureaucrats to expand powers, functions, and budgets of their agencies

X. Policy Evaluation: Impressionistic vs Systematic A. Systematic (Sophisticated) model: a feedback link that identifies problems, and set the process in motion again - systematic rarely occurs

B. Impressionistic: come from interest groups complaints, legislative hearings, media stories, and citizens complaints - stimulate reform

Chap. 15 Policy Evaluationp. 337

(Marianna Roppolo )

-Policy evaluation is learning about the consequences of public policy

-Policy evaluation research is the objective, systematic, empirical examination of the effects of

policy goals.

Impact of policy is measured through:

1) target group

2) impact on group other than the target group

3) future

4) direct Costs

5) indirect costs

-Everything pertaining to policy has to be measured both symbolically and tangibly.

- Politics used to be: Who gets what, when and how

- Politics has become: who feels what, when and how

Ways govnít agencies review policies: 1) hearings and reports

2) site visits

3) comparison with professional standards

4) evaluation of complaints

What govnít can do about evaluations: -must weigh cost against benefits

-comparing what has happened with the policy against what would have happened with out it

-Comparison between areas with the policy to that without the policy

Experimental policy research:

- some believe that experimenting with policy idea is best to do before implementing, but this

beings about some serious questions:

1) Are programs predisposed to produce specific results?

2) People behave differently when they know they are being watched: how effective is the experiment taking this into account?
3) Small group experiments may produce different results than when introduced to a larger participating audience.
4)Politics play a role in what is studied and what policies are implemented: People can interpret findings differently and often times research is politically motivated.

Why evaluations fail: 1) Goals are hard to define
2) govnít agencies are prone to try to show positive impact and don't want to find evidence that shows otherwise
3) studies require time, money and man power that is not available
How do they explain negative findings 1) effects are long range and hard to measure
2) effects are subtle and hard to measure
3) research is bias and that causes true effects to be hard to find
Limits of public policy: 1) some problems do not have solutions
2) expectations set are hard to achieve
3) to solve problems of one group may cause problems for another
4) some problems have more than one cause
5) some policies are more costly than the problems
6) political system is not structured for rational decision making