1: Political Economy 2002
2: Education 2002, 2005
3: Health Care 2002, 2004
4: Crime 2002, 2004, 2005
5: Terrorism 2004, 2005
Old 4: AIDS2002 [discontinued]
(Old 6: Immigration) 2002 [discontinued]
Hank Sforzini, 2002
-Crime, education, health care, immigration, and balancing the budget continue to top the list of issues on the public agenda.
-Moral breakdown is the one recurring theme cutting across the political spectrum.
-1/4 of the nations children under six years of age live in poverty. Poverty rates have climbed from 18% in 1979 to 25% in 1994.
-Michael Mandel writes that the new global and technology-based economy is creating a Ahigh risk society.@ He warns that no one can expect that today=s job will still exist five years down the road, and no one can predict the industrial growth ten years down the road.
-Legislators complain that the public: 1) believes there can be gains without pains, 2) demands instant solutions to complex problems, 3) expects too much from government, and 4) is politically inattentive and disengaged.
-Our crisis is essentially political, not economic.
-Theodore Lowi, likens the government to a jellyfish that is pervasive but weak, easily captured by private interests.
-American political reformers always end up reinforcing the status quo. The main problem is that the reformers work from a narrowly conceived concept of democracy as representation.
-Government is an essential part of doing business in the U.S. - as in every other industrial nation.
-Democracy has its institutional limitations as compared to all other systems.
Democratic fallacy = the open-endedness of hopes leading to the view that a majority can or should have whatever it wants.
-Most politicians have relatively short time horizons.
-Religion has a very large role in shaping
how Americans think about politics.
-Lawyers, lobbyists and politicians receive numerous benefits from the parasite economy.
-Yair Ahoroni (No Risk Society) asserts that the welfare state has turned into an insurance state.
-The U.S. is still a debtor nation.
We continue to suffer a balance-of-trade deficit.
-Western Europe, the U.S. and Japan have been outpaced by newly industrialized countries such as Brazil and the so-called Four Tigers (Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong). Behind the Tigers have been Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.
-The U.S. is facing serious problems, including trade imbalances and extensive foreign borrowing.
-Japanese exports to the U.S. have risen in the past years, while U.S. exports to Japan have fallen.
-In 1985, the U.S. became a debtor nation for the first time since WWI. This means that the U.S. owes more money to other nations than they owe to us.
-The real challenge is in balancing the budge (and reducing the national debt) while, at the same time, encouraging economic growth and prosperity for the benefit of the average citizen.
-More than $1 trillion is owed on credit cards in the U.S.
-An important reason for the downward pressure on wages is a decline in labor union membership and influence.
The Hidden Unemployed
-Due to so many American women working, serious implications for child-rearing, family life, and parental involvement in the schools have risen greatly.
Aggregate supply = total of all goods and services produced in an economy, less exports and adding imports.
Inflation = the increase in the supply of money and credit.
-Economists argue there are several possible causes of inflation: 1) Demand pull inflation, 2) Cost-push inflation and 3) Monetarism.
Money supply = the total deposits the banking system carries on its books plus currency in circulation.
-The growth of the money supply is limited in two ways: 1) Hard money and 2) Soft money.
Tariffs = taxes levied on imports
Chap. 1: Political Economy
The Political Economy
II. The best measures of a healthy economy are productivity, income distribution, and employment. In terms of these indicators, the U.S. economy is showing signs of illness. Even though unemployment is at an all-time high, there really is no job security in the economy. However, those with ‘steady’ jobs, saw increases in sales and the rate of purchase went up, thus trying to make the economy stronger, and allotting more money for salaries, and thus, a downward pressure movement on wages. However, for those with jobs, steady or unsteady, wealth distribution since the 1970s has targeted certain types of people, and race distribution is a factor in this targeting. It has been a very long time since we have heard of growing incomes. During the years of expansion, American prosperity has been extremely uneven. People at the top of the ladder have enjoyed a rise in their wages, however, the middle class either stayed even or began to slip. America now has the greatest division between rich and poor more than any other industrialized country in the world. Productivity has had similar rises and falls, much like wages, and the rate of productivity seems to be affected directly by the spending power of the American consumer.
III. World War II is the main reason why America’s economy is the way it is. This is the event that began to shape America’s economy. Adding on the strong dependency on imports and foreign capital, makes the debt more of a mountain of debt. The debt leads to a weaker economy, which in turn leads to social tensions among various groups of people.
IV. Aggregate supply: total of all goods produced in an economy
Main factor: Transfer payments- federal dollars paid directly to individuals, including Social Security and Medicare. These payments have accounted for the recent growth of more federal spending.
Main factor: keeping a steady GNP (total dollar value of all goods bought for final use and for services during the year. This helps anchor the economy, thus making for a steady business cycle.
Charles U Walters, 2005
-Declining test scores, a high drop-out rate, disruptive and often violent behavior in the schools, and complaints from employers that today’s students are ill-prepared to compete in the international job market is evidence of the American educational system failing.
-The secret of American economic and political vitality is our greatest social invention: mass education.
Education serves two primary functions:
-Americans were preoccupied with education in the years following WWII. They viewed education as the key to the future financial success of their children.
-The landmark Elementary and Secondary Education Act, passed by Congress in 1965, provided federal aid to numerous schools.
-Court-ordered desegration of the schools, along with the women's movement hit hard on social dynamics in schools.
-The educational crisis is only going to get worse as our nation faces record high enrollments coupled with the shortage of qualified teachers and adequate space.
The two most influential teacher unions:
1) National Education Association (NEA)
-Politics is at the core of every attempt of reform within the educational system.
-The Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 (IASA) reauthorized and restructured the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.
The IASA endorses four goals: 1) High standards
for all students
-School choice and charter schools also are attempts to hold schools accountable for their performance. Charter schools are alternative public schools in which parents are empowered to make more critical decisions in the design and operation of the school.
Chapter 3: Health Care
by Tiffany Holley, 2004
-Employees less willing to absorb the steepening0 medical insurance costs.
-U.S spends more on health care per capita and spends a greater % of its GDP on
health care any other OECD country.
-Advances in biomedical technology.
-Developments in new drugs
-Hospital and other health care providers consolidated.
-Health care labor pressures for increased wages
-Managed care reduced the increase in health care costs during the mid 1990’s.
-Insuring Health: The American pattern
-Med care seen as private transaction b/t individuals and their care providers.
-American citizens access to quality health care perceived as a privilege.
-Individual health care is unrelated to the public good
-Health care is a crisis of cash
-Paying bills has fallen to a 3rd party payer
-HMO enrollments have boomed
-How gov’t got involved
-Isolated legislative attempts were made earlier in this century to provide health
care access to all citizens through universal compulsory insurance.
-Legislation est 2 separate programs: Medicare and Medicaid
-Only poor elderly, lacking private insurance coverage should be eligible for medicare.
-Gov’t as a 3rd party
-Efforts at Cost Containment
-Largest component of health care expenses today
-Charge a lot
-PhRMA estimates that the costs of dev new drugs today is $500 mil-600mil
-Insurance consumer responsible only for a small co payment.
-Squeezing the Employer
-Only 62% of all US firms are offering health insurance to workers
-14% of American population is uninsured
-Most expedient solution to immediate cash-flow problems.
-The unloading of one player’s burden onto another
-Cutting administration costs
-Eliminating unnecessary procedures
-Rationing care: The Oregon Plan
-proposed limits on the treatments for which Oregon would pay
-For Longer Lasting Relief
-Play or Pay: targets employers as the responsible parties in providing employee
health coverage. If choose not to then must pay into a national insurance fund.
-manage patient health in an organized, efficient, and cost effective way.
-local list of specialists and surgeons to whom a managed-care patient can
be referred by the primary care physician is generally limited.
-Patient Bill of Rights
-attempt to protect consumers
-Toward a National Health Policy
-Each of Major Reference System
-provide universal access to low-cost or no-cost medical care.
-they do so much about much less cost per person
-they perform more effectively in preserving and prolonging life
-What Direction for the U.S.
-Health as a right
-The better option
Chap. 3a: Health Care
-The escalating cost of the U.S. health care bill has reached such a proportions that politicians are being forced to respond.
-In the early 1990's, neither the providers or the payers were happy with the overall health care system. The consumer was not happy either.
-Political candidates (both state and national) started to exploit the health care issue in the 1992 election cycle.
Compared to other major industrialized nations in the world, our uneven patchwork of health delivery: 1) costs more per person, 2) delivers lesser results based on international standards of success, and 3) serves fewer of our citizens.
-Between 1988 and 1993, the yearly increases in national medical outlay were three times the annual increases in the overall cost of living, declining slightly in recent years to two times the annual rise.
-An American citizen's access to quality health care is perceived as a privilege, not a right.
-Paying America's health bill has traditionally fallen to what is termed a third-party payer.
Third-party payer = a financial agent who assumes the risk of medical and hospital expenses incurred by the first party (the insured patient) with the second party (provider) after the services are provided.
-Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) are making rapid strides toward becoming the new model for health care delivery.
-In summer of 1965, President Johnson signed the legislation the ensured hospital and physician services to the nation's elderly and its poor.
-Radically expanding access to basic health care, the legislation established two separate programs: Medicare and Medicaid. Medicare addressed the needs of elderly and disabled. Medicaid served the needs of the nation's poor.
-General practice physicians, under contract with the National Health Service, receive a flat rate for each patient in their care, similar to the HMO primary care doctor the United States.
-The first preliminary requirement is that we, as a nation, accept universal access to health care as an entitlement, similar to our acceptance of public education as a right.
Chap. 3b. Aids: Keeping the Lid On
(Hank Sforzini, 2002)
-Unless you understand the unique HIV virus and how it wreaks havoc, you cannot comprehend AIDS as disease or political problem. AIDS has a very brief history, the first cases were diagnosed and reported in 1981.
-It must be understood that the higher administrative levels in the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), as in all cabinet departments, are people by political appointees of the incumbent president.
-By 1982, there was evidence that AIDS was contaminating the nation's blood supply trickling into the CDC. The maneuvering of political interest groups that acted itself out over the next several years would be just another example of work-a-day policymaking - had not "politics as usual" murdered people.
-The resistance to screening blood was about economics.
-Politics was an intricate part of AIDS from the first report in 1981. Gay rights interest groups, blood merchant trade associations, religious right political action movements, government regulatory agencies, local and national politicians were all accounted for. At times the accelerating toll of sickness and death seemed only a backdrop to the machinations of groups, government, egos, and ambition.
-Federal medical research money is distributed, if not democratically, at least geographically. Across the nation, university medical centers and private foundation labs scramble for their place at the governmental funding trough.
-HIV infection also has profound implications for the United States' efforts to modernize the African economic infrastructure and to stabilize political regimes in the still-struggling nations.
-Many commentators have attributed the pressure for not reporting the HIV infected by name as a product of intense gay activist politicking. It is true that those with the best organized gay lobbies and are also the states most protective of anonymity in HIV test results.
-The Department of Defense (DOD) had already anticipated the HIV antibody test and was prepared to launch mass screening of armed forces personnel.
-The rationale for screening was based on several principles: direct solider-to-soldier transfusions occasionally necessary in battle; the proximity of soldiers in group housing; the protection of infected military personnel from the live virus vaccinations administered to all personnel; and the cost to the military health care system in treating those in whom symptoms developed.
-The Department of Labor got into the act. It would screen all students, staff, and applicants for the Job Corps.
-Government has put an enormous amount of money into AIDS research and education.
-A truly pubic policy is one that aims to solve a problem that cannot or will not be solve by private initiative.
Chap. 3b. Aids: Keeping the Lid
A. AIDS: Keeping The Lid On
1. AIDS is a equal opportunityB. HIV: A Unique Virus
1. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)3. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) acquire their immune deficiency later in life through infection with the HIV virus
C. One Step Back: How Does One Get HIV?
1. Casual contact does not spread HIVD. AIDS Surfaces- Fast and Dirty
1. A new strand of pneumonia was found in homosexual males. It became known as the “Gay Plague”. No special congressional funds were appropriated to deploy CDC personnel to investigate causes.E. Blood: Money in the Bank
1. By the beginning of 1982, evidence that AIDS was contaminating theF. HIV: Discovered-In a Handshake
G. HIV: First Africa- Then the World
1. Rural men and women t brought HIV to the citiesH. HIV Origins: Counter theories
1. HIV wasn’t killing the people and their immune system like as with the HIV-2I. Personal Behavior- Public Death
J. America’s Prisons: A Viral Burden
K. If Not Quarantine, Then What?
L. A Final Word
1.The government has put an enormous amount of money into AIDS research and education, but in a timely fashion.
Chapter 4: Crime and the (In)Justice System
by Tiffany Holley, 2004
-1 violent crime- every 22.1 sec
-1 property crime- every 3 min
-1 forcible rape- every 5 min
-1 murder- every 24 min
-1 robbery- every 54 sec
-1 larceny theft – every 12 min
-1 burglary- every 12 min
-1 motor-vehicle theft- every 21 min
-How much does crime cost?
-Estimating the cost of crime involves many variables that consider both direct &
indirect costs of crime.
-Journal of Law and Economics
-Direct costs of crime
-value of objects stolen, medical costs, loss productivity, time lost from
work, damage to property, decreased property values, cost of operating
the criminal justice system.
-Involuntary Transfer costs
-occur when resources are taken from 1 person or organization and
acquired by another but still remain in society.
-consensual crimes in which both parties agree to participate in the
-Costs are different for different groups
-Types of crimes
-Violent crime: homicide, rape, assault and robbery
-Property crime: unlawful acts w/intent of gaining property w/out the use of
threat of force against an individual
-White-collar crime: illegal acts, which are characterized by deceit, concealment,
or violation of trust and which are not dependent upon the application or threat of
physical force or violence
-Environmental crimes: illegal toxic-waste handling
-Public corruption: public servant asks, demands, solicits, seeks, accepts, receives,
or cares to receive something of value in return for influence in the performance
of an official act.
-Financial crimes: schemes to defraud, embezzle, or misapply the money of
individuals, businesses, and financial institutions by manipulation,
misrepresentation, falsification, or deceit.
-Bankruptcy Fraud: intentional concealment of some of the assets belonging to
the debtor or the furnishing of false information to the courts
-Drugs on the job and at home
-Victimless Crime: prostitution, homosexual activity, gambling, drug addiction,
drunkenness, vagrancy, disorderly conduct, and traffic violations.
-Hate crimes: crimes against others b/c of race/ethnicity, religion, or sexual
-Organized Crime: supplies goods and services many people want but cannot get
-Teenage criminals seem far more violent
-Greater number of criminals
-More children engage in vicious bullying
-Offer them rehabilitative services early in life
-Criminals: Who are they-Why are they?
-When the various parts of the social sys lose their integration, people may fall
into a state of normalessness or confusion that may cause rates of criminal
activity to increase.
-Shifting demographics play a significant role in rise and fall of crime
-Race and Class
-Large proportion of offenders come from minority groups
-Social and Economic class
-most crimes committed by males
-Is violent crime a necessary part of modern society
-easy to contribute the violence in our country to industrialization and large city
-additional answers are thought to be found in our cultural, historical, and
-The Justice sys: liberal and conservative models
-Liberals: too preoccupied w/underlying causes
-Conservatives: exaggerated the gains that can be wrung from tougher law enforc.
-A Radical Proposal for Fixing the Problem
-Miranda Warning: can be replaced by the recording of an arrest and interrogation
through videotapes and recorders
-The exclusionary rule: make rule discretionary instead of mandatory
-The right to counsel: should not be factor in the investigative stage but only in
pretrial and trial stages
-Instructions to the Jury: silence of defendant could mean guilty.
-Unanimous jury verdicts should no longer be required
-Limits of correctional reform: offers minimum protection to the public and more
harm to the offender
-The Medical Model: assumed offenders to be sick; offenses considered a
manifestation or symptom of illness, a cry for help.
-3 Strikes laws and changing public attitudes: target-repeat offenders. Ensure
longer prison sentences and greater punishment for those who have been
convicted of serious and violent felonies.
-Police: Front Lines and Under Fire
-Citizens are taking to the front lines, too
-Growing public awareness of the need to take an active role in helping the police
-Changes in the law
-100,000 new police officers
-3 strikes and your out
-Federal prison construction
-Death penalty expansion
-Creation of the national police corps
-Prevention and Rehabilitation
-Violence against women act
-National domestic violence hotline
-Assault weapons ban
Crime and the Justice System
Lindsay Curry, (Spring 2005)
-Why do some people act out of the norms of the law? Who are Criminals and why are they?
a sociologist, offered one of the earliest and still relevant macro sociological
-She argued that various parts of the social systems lose their integration and people may fallGain in Prosperity
-People will develop unreasonably high expectations in their rush for material gain.
Some play by the rules while others ignore them.
-The number of persons between 15-24 year olds in the 1960’s was about 24 million where as in 2000 there were nearly 40 million 15-24 year oldsRace and Class
-Virtually all data on race and crime regardless of location and age shows a large proportion of
offenders come from minority groups.
-In 2002 Human Rights Watch reported that out of almost two million people incarcerated in adultStatistics
-In 12 states 10-15% of adult black men are incarcerated.Social and Economic Class
-About 48% of jail and prison inmates grew up with one parent or other relativesSex
-Most crimes are committed by males especially those under 20.Non-citizens
-About 55% of non-citizens processed in court in 1994 were in U.S legallyJustice system: Liberal and Conservative models
-Enrico Ferri, an Italian legal scholar who helped developed criminology as an academicA radical proposal for fixing the system
-Judge Harold Rotwax has concluded that the criminal justice system is broken and requires
radical change such as:
-The Miranda Warning should be changed because when a police officer is put in the position of telling a suspect in a murder or a rape that they don’t have to tell us anything and that may be the best thing for you. It can also produce a situation in which a proper confession in thrown out byInstruction to the jury
-Rothwax feels that unanimous jury verdicts should be thrown out also peremptory challenges to
prospective jurors should be strictly limited or abolished (allows lawyers to knock -off jurors for
Three Strikes Law and Changing public attitudes
-Many Americans feel that victims should have rightsPolice on the front line
-Many Americans feel ambivalent towards police especially after OJ Simpson’s trialReagan, Bush I, Clinton, and Bush II Judges
-All four presidents pushed congress for anticrime bills to show public that they were tough onFacts
-Violent crimes are higher in U.S than in any other industrialized nation
-Many Americans believe the criminal justice system is in a state of collapse.
-The bottom line is that the criminals are going free. There is no respect for the truth, and without truth there can be no justice.
-All crimes are corrosive to society. The most costly crimes in terms of dollars and the most damaging to the moral fiber of society are so-called white-collar crimes.
-The American justice system is thought by many to be extremely punitive, and yet the Bureau of Justice Statistics demonstrates this image does not match reality.
-The 1995 crime clock shows that a violent crime happens every eighteen seconds and a property crime every three seconds.
-It is estimated that five-sixths of us will be victims of attempted or completed violent crimes during out lives. The risk is greater for males than females and for African Americans than for whites.
-Total gross receipts from criminal activity was between $26.9 billion and $136.9 billion in 1986.
-Violent crime refers to such events as homicide, rape, and assault that may result in injury to a person.
-Property crimes are unlawful acts with the intent of gaining property without involving the use of threat or force against an individual.
-The investigations of white-collar crime remains one of the top national priorities of the FBI.
-Financial crimes are schemes to defraud, embezzle, or misapply the money, funds, securities, or credits of individuals, business, and/or financial institutions by manipulations, misrepresentation, falsification, or deceit.
-Criminal action relating to bankruptcy fraud involves intentional concealment of some of the assets belonging to the debtor or the furnishing of false information to the courts.
-MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) made Americans aware that alcohol is the greatest cause of death on the highways and has successfully pressured the courts and state legislators to take drunk driving more seriously.
-Most crimes fall into the victimless crime category. These crimes include prostitution, homosexual activity, gambling, drug addiction, drunkenness, vagrancy, disorderly conduct, and traffic violations.
-There has been an increasing concern about juvenile offenders. One reason is teenage criminals seem far more violent than their predecessors.
-Other criminologists and sociologists think the high prevalence of crime in the U.S. is due to demographic factors.
-There is no agreement on whether social
class and economic conditions cause criminal behavior. One reason
is that some people with similar characteristics commit crimes and others
Brewster, "Americans Awake to Terrorism"
Felix Parker and Erin Harden, 2005
History of Terrorism
The term itself goes back to 1795, when it referred to the guillotining of opponents by members of the French Revolution.
In the first century, Jewish Zealots publicly executed Romans and their collaborators.
The term referred not to acts of violence by nongovernmental entities but violence by states themselves, such as acts conducted by the Soviet and Nazi governments against their citizens.
In 20th century the term changed to mean violence against the state itself by individuals and, now against individual citizens of a state.
Modern terrorism was honed during the Arab-Israeli Six Day War in 1967, and in the Student movements in 1968. The first acts were the pro-Palestinian airline hijacking in the early 1970’s leading up to kidnapping and subsequent murder of Israeli Olympic athletes in 1972.
Types of Terrorist Tools and Attacks
Conventional terrorist attacks involve the use of explosives in pipe bombs, car bombs, shootings, kidnapping, and assassinations. Targets may include anything from commercial buildings, to transportation links or facilities, or symbolic targets.
Suicide terrorism a signature of the Al-Qaeda or Palestinian radicals, and involves setting off a bomb strapped to the body of a person in a crowded area.
Chemical Weapons are chemical substances used to kill injure, or main citizens. Considered WMD weapons include Nerve agents, Blister agents, Choking agents, Blood agents, Toxins, Control agents, and incapacitating agent. One example of a chemical attack was the 1995 Tokyo by the group Aum Shinrikyo.
Biological weapons are toxic substances made of natural substances. Biological weapons are placed in five groups: Bacterial agents….i.e. anthrax, plague, and typhoid fever, Rickettsial agents ……..i.e. typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Viral agents …..Smallpox, influenza, yellow fever, dengue fever, encephalic, Toxins, and fungal agents are the categories that biological weapons categories.
Radiological weapons are weapons with ability to spread radioactive particles. A RDD spread radiological materials upon explosion and the simple RDD, or dirty bomb, which spreads radiological materials without the use explosive materials. Sources of the this kind of weapon are : other countries, hospital radiation therapy sections, radiopharmaceutical materials, nuclear power plants fuel rods, laboratories ,and universities.
These weapons are hard to obtain, make and transport. Therefore there has been no known attack using "dirty bombs".
Cyber terrorism is terrorism that involves computers, networks, and in the information they contain. This is an appealing target to many terrorists, growing at an enormous pace in the past ten years. Cyber terrorism is designed into five different categories: On a specific database of a specific owner, With the purpose of accessing a network , for espionage purposes, to shut down service ,and introduce harmful instructions to a computer system.
Seven countries are listed by the State Department as official sponsors of terrorism. Iran the most active supporter of terrorist groups, although the support and activity has lessened for groups other than Palestinians.
Iraq was the only Arab-Muslim country that did not condemn the September 11 attacks. They continue to support terrorist groups like Palestine Liberation Front.
Syria has not been involved in terrorism since 1986, but has continued to provide a safe haven for terrorists groups as: the Palestine Islamic Jihad.
Libya after an agent of the country was found connected to the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Scotland. Libya has been distancing itself from terrorism and terrorists groups.
Cuba provides safety for terrorist particularly those involved in Latin American issues.
North Korea provides safety for Japanese terrorists and evidence shows that they are active in selling arms to groups.
Sudan provides safety for groups such as the Egyptian Jihad, and the Palestine Jihad.
The US has taken four harsh actions against these countries: A ban against all arms-related sales and exports, controls against dual use items, and banning all economic assistance to these countries.
Terrorists Groups have one of the following four idea that make them a terrorist organization: Political beliefs, Religious, Ethinc (hate crimes), and Social (single issue).The State Department identifies 33 groups as terrorist organizations.
Al-Qaeda is the group behind the 9/11 attacks, formed in 1988 by Osama bin Laden whose wealth comes from his family construction business, the group was formed to fight Soviets in Afghanistan, people came from a variety of countries and were trained and Radicalized at the numerous bases in the country. Al –Qaeda has three main activities: Attempts to radicalize existing Islamic groups and create Islamic groups where none exist. Advocates destruction of the United States, which has been seen as the chief obstacle to reform in Muslim societies, supports Muslim fighters in different Arab countries.
Actions taken by the US are : blocking most of the money used by the group, arresting most of the senior officers( with the exception of bin Laden)
Existing Policy Tools
Policy was focused on state terrorism but a the Anti Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 allowed the focus to be turn to the actual groups actively carrying out attacks.
Diplomacy and Constructive Engagement
The US, NATO, and many other countries joined with the Untied States in condemning the 2001 attacks.
Economic Sanctions can be undertaken against terrorist groups themselves or against state sponsors of terrorism. Seven categories describe the sanctions: restrictions on trading, against technology transfers, foreign assistance, on export credits and guarantees, foreign aid, on aircraft or ship traffic, on the implementation of some treaties.
Basically a counter terrorism plan, the plan includes kidnapping accused terrorists.
The 1986 bombing of Libya for its alleged role in the bombing of a German club, in which 32 people died.
The 1998 missile attack against terrorist bases in Afghanistan, on a supposed chemical weapons factory in the Sudan.
The November 2002 attack using the unmanned Predator drone with Hellfire missiles that killed six Al-Qaeda operatives.
Ch. 5 - Americans Awake
To Terrorism: The 21st Century War
There is no clear-cut definition of “Terrorism.” In this text alone, there are six different federal agencies listed and six different definitions.
Domestic terrorism is not controlled by
any government and has a limited scope.
International terrorism has a broader scope,
but is also not sponsored by a government.
State terror is controlled directly by
the government but focuses only on the citizens of the country itself.
State-sponsored terrorism is violence run
by individual nations as a tool of their political and economic interests.
These nations either sponsor terrorism or provide a safe harbor and assistance to terrorists from outside their country.
HISTORY OF TERRORISM
Acts of terrorism have been occurring since the first century, when Jewish Zealots publicly executed Romans and their collaborators.
Until the twentieth century, the term terrorism referred to violence by states themselves, such as the Soviets and Nazis against their own citizens. It then changed to mean violence against the state itself by individuals. It is now against individual citizens of a state.
The first modern terrorist acts were the pro-Palestinian airline hijackings in the early 1070s, which led up to the kidnapping and murder of Israeli Olympic athletes in 1972.
Terrorist groups have now spread worldwide.
Most major terrorist incidents were aimed
around the world, not just the U.S. The number of terrorist attacks
on the U.S. has declined since the early 1980s. Most other incidents
took place in South or Central America. There have been fewer attacks
on American soil or on American targets than on other targets worldwide.
Categories range from A, B, and C – A being most dangerous. A includes smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism, and Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.
The use of biological weapons against citizens began with Japan in World War II. Since then, other countries have developed biological weapons.
Countries Known Or Suspected To Have Biological Weapons – China, India, Iran Iraq, Libya, North Korea, and Russia
Radiological and Nuclear Weapons
Countries With Nuclear Capabilities – U.S., China, India, Pakistan, and Russia
This has become an appealing target because of society’s growing reliance on the computer. These types of weapons include reconnaissance, root compromise, information requests, malicious codes, denial-of-service, user compromise, and web site defacement.
EXISTING POLICY TOOLS
Rewards for Information
Extradition/Law Enforcement Cooperation
POTENTIAL POLICY TOOLS
THE SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS
POLICY IMPACTS OF THE ATTACKS
The only answer to terrorism at this point is to educate ourselves and become involved in the decision-making process.
OLD Chap. 6: Immigration (discontinued)
Hank Sforzini, 2002
-The myth of the United States in the mind of immigrants, is the lack of external constraints, of unbounded personal opportunity.
-The U.S. census reveals that, between 1980 and 1994, over one-third of the overall population growth in the United States was due to new immigrants, disproportionately Latin American and Asian.
-The first legislative enactments to control the flow of immigrants into the United States had its beginnings in 1907 with the creation of the first Immigration Commission.
-The border separating the United States from Mexico isn't the most breachable in the world, but it is the most breached.
-The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 designed to limit and equalize numbers of officially admitted immigrants, was modified by the Refugee Act of 1980, and made changes to requirements for legal immigration but did not address the influx of foreigners entering the United States legally.
-Amnesty would allow resident illegal aliens to file for resident status and, eventually, citizenship.
-Priority workers (about 40,000 a year) are defined as those aliens with extraordinary ability, such as outstanding professors or researchers and certain multinational executives and managers.
-Through every wave of immigration, the loss of employment to immigrants has always been the first issue raised.
-The worsening of state, county, and local school-district deficits in the metropolitan areas with the heaviest immigrant settlement has turned attention to the public programs most heavily burdened.
-Those immigrants eligible for citizenship under the 1986 Immigration Act reached the five-year period of residence required for the citizenship application. A large number of those eligible began to naturalize, and the national mood was turning dominantly hostile toward all immigrants.
-The Federation for American Immigration
Reform (FAIR) is a well-organized interest group whose legislative agenda
is to limit legal immigration, to eliminate illegal migration through national
documentation, and to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the effects
of immigration on all aspects of the social environment.