15: James Madison, FEDERALIST 51
(Sarah Hess, 2000)
“Father of our Constitution”
~Born in VA, 1st of 12 Children
~Good Student, Princeton University
~No direction out of college, Drawn into
politics by the revolution
~1776 elected to constitutional convention
~felt strongly about religious freedom~constant
theme of career
~advocate for federal structure
~separation of church and state
~Wrote VA plan
~thought confederate Gov. shoud have more
power at the expense of the states
~other offices held include: VA house of
delegates, sec of state for Jefferson, Pres in 1808
~papers written as propaganda to get the
~51 talks about the separation of powers
into the three branches of gov.
~Balance of power to keep each branch in check
"But what is gov. itself but the greatest of all
reflections on human nature? If man were angels no government would
be necessary. If angels were to govern men neither external nor internal
controls on governmant would be necessary."
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16: Woodrow Wilson
(Separation of Powers)
(Kelly Armstrong, 2000)
President of Princeton
Gov. of New Jersey
President of U.S 1912-1920
Proposed the 14 points with the 14th being
the League of Nations for the Versilles Treaty to end WWI. Senator
Henry Cabot Lodge led the foreign relations committee in blocking the League
of Nations so US never agreed
Tall and skinny
Married Edith after his first wife, Edith,
Had a stroke 1919 that left him basically
Wilson criticizes the fragmentation of power and
lack of clear accountablility in the American structure of government.
Wilson was influenced by Walter Bagehot, a British
Economist, political theorist, and journalist, who wrote The English Constitution,
a book that had great influence on Wilson. Wilson much agreed with
the English Parliament which had no division between the Executive and
Wilson understood why the framers had separated
the two great branches of the system in order to guarantee the Constitution
it own domain and be safe from tyrants like George III
Importantly, Wilson felt, "As at present constituted,
the federal government lacks strength because its powers are divided, lacks
promptness because its authorities are multiplied, lacks wieldiness because
its processes are roundabout, lacks efficiency because its responsibility
is indistinct and its action without competent direction" without separation
17: James Sterling Young, "The Washington
By Theresa Steele, 2001
Nature of Author's Writings:
Young writes about the
social makeups of communitites and how this governs certain lifestyles.
Main points of reading:
"The settlement pattern
of a community is the sigature that a social organization inscribes
upon a landscape."
The way social organizations
segregate themselves into communitites relates wholey to
how they are segregated
in the political or professional arena.
The distinct groups of
the governmental arena segregated themselves into groups of
"we's" and "they's."
The community structure
of this time mirrored the governmental structure itself, a
"seperation of powers."
These party members felt
a stronger sense of identification with their constitutional roles
than with their more
"Rulers generally considered
themsleves executives, legislators, or judges first, and
politicians, or party
This leads to not only
a division in the communitites, but a division as well in the house and
senate area of professional
"Power made a community
of cultural strangers."
There were also very
many prejudices among the "power holders" from the north or New
England, and those from
the southern region.
This led to a disrupted
scene on the floors of both the House and Senate.
Compared to Hyde Park
in London, where it seemed as though all were just on a soap
box spouting out their
different beliefs and no concrete decision making was done.
This system of governmental
prejudice and segregation was "more anarchic than
"At a time when citizen
interest in national government was at its lowest point in history the
power-holders on the
Potomac fashioned a system of surpassing excellence for
representing the people
and grossly deficient in the means for governing the people."
How much if any has the
political system changed today, in terms of segregated parties
Is there a more cohesive
and sound working model in todays House and Senate or is it
still, in a way, a Hyde
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19: James Madison- Federalist 39 & 46
Tiffany Holley, 2002
-Republic-a gov't which derives all its
powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, &
is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a
limited period during good behavior.
-essential that it be derived
from the great body of the society
-sufficient for such a gov't
that the persons administering it be appointed by the people.
-Adversaries say it was not sufficient for the
Constitution to adhere to the Republican form.
-ought to have preserved the
federal form, which regards the Union as a Confederacy of sovereign
-On one hand the Constitution is to be founded
on the assent and ratification of the people of America, given by
deputies elected for the special purpose.
-On the other hand, that this assent and ratification
is to be given by the people, not as individuals composing one entire nation,
but as composing the distinct and independent States to which they
-The act of the people, as forming so many independent
states, not as forming one aggregate nation is a result of a unanimous
assent of the several states that are parties to it.
-Each state in ratifying the Constitution, is
considered as a sovereign body independent of all others, and only to be
bound by its own voluntary act.
-House of Representatives will derive its
powers from the people of America.
-Senate will derive its powers from the
as political and coequal societies; and these will be represented on the
principle of equality in the Senate.
-The executive power will be derived from
a compound source.
-The immediate election of
the President is to be made by the States in their political characters.
-The proposed Constitution is neither a national
or a federal Constitution, but a compromise of both.
-Sources from which the ordinary powers of the
gov't are drawn-partly federal and partly national.
-Operation of these powers-national
-Authoritative mode of introducing amendments-neither
wholly federal nor wholly national
Federalist # 46
-Federal and State govt's are substantially dependent
on the great body of the citizens of the U.S.
-Federal and State govt's constituted with
powers and designed fro different purposes.
-Ultimate authority, wherever the derivative
may be found, resides in the people alone.
-The first and most natural attachment
of the people will be to the gov'ts of their respective States.
Federalist Papers No. 36 and No. 49
notes from slides by Tanner Cremeans, Fall 2016
It is ESSENTIAL to have a government derived from
the great body of people, not just a favored proportion.
Elected officials are the administrators of government.
Their term of service is to be limited by time,
good behavior, or as long as their favorability is maintained.
Ratification of a Federal Constitution
The ratification must result from the
unanimous assent of the states, not by the legislative authority, but by
the people themselves.
The ratification must result from the unanimous
assent of the states, not by the legislative authority, but by the people
Where will the power be?
The House will derive power from the people
Federal and State
The Senate will derive power from the state
The Executive’s power will be derived from a compound
source, and the election of the president will be made by the states.
This, according to Madison would present a mixed
government between the state and federal level.
Both governments will be dependent on
the great body of the citizens of the United States.
Officials who are found lost within their power
must be reminded that the ultimate authority resides in the people alone.
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20: Daniel Elazar-American Federalism
Tiffany Holley, 2002
-Over 2 centuries, change and flexibility
have marked American federalism
-the national and state gov'ts
have shared power in different ways, to different degrees, with different
-Elazar defends the importance of state gov'ts:
managers of gov't programs
-Every day the states are actively contributing
to the achievement of American goals and to the continuing efforts
to define those goals.
-An apparent loss of freedom in one sphere may
be more than made up by gains in another.
-National values change by popular consensus
and all gov'ts must adapt themselves to those changes.
-The success of the states is that they have
been able to adapt themselves well.
-Part of the states' adaptation
has been manifested in their efforts to improve their institutional capabilities
to handle the new tasks they have assumed.
-Been a great and continuing
in the states' supervision of the functions carried out in their local
increased through the provision of technical aid to their localities,
through financial grants, and through control of the power to raise revenue
for all subdivisions.
-States have been unwilling or unable to
do enough to meet metropolitan problems
-Management and innovation in education
continue to be primary state responsibilities in which outside aid is used
to support locally initiated ideas.
-Federal grants have served as a stimulus
to the development of state capabilities and have helped their strength
-Broadening the programs they
can offer their citizens.
-2 kinds of conflicts connected with federal-state
-conflicts between interests
that use the federal vs. state argument as a means to legitimize their
-low-level conflicts over the
best way to handle specific cooperative activities
-Noncentralized character of American politics
has served to strengthen the states
-functions to a great extent
through bargaining and negotiation
-States remain viable because they exist as
civil societies with political systems of their own
-States remain important in a continental nation
as reflectors of sectional and regional differences that are enhanced
by the growing social and economic complexity of every part of the country.
-Remain important as experimenters and innovators
over a wider range of fields than ever before
-because gov't at every level
in the U.S. has been expanding
-2 ways traditional roles of the states have been
-become more active promoters
and administrators of public services
-become increasingly able to
manage major governmental activities with the competence and expertise
by the metropolitan-technological frontier
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