Mon. 22 Nov., 09:00, Smith 104, PSC 201. [PPT] [HTML] BRAVO!
Tues 23 Nov, 09:30, Smith 104, PSC 311. [PPT] [HTML] BRAVO!
Tues 23 Nov, 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302. [PPT] [HTML (part only)] BRAVO!
Tues 30 Nov, 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302. [PPT] [HTML] BRAVO!
Tues 30 Nov, 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302. [PPT] [HTML] BRAVO!
Tues 30 Nov, 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302. [PPT] [HTML] presented in last class session.
Mon. 22 Nov., 09:00, Smith 104, PSC 201.Election 2000: The Election That Made America Question Its Election Process
Supreme Court Interference In The Presidential
Election of 2000
Current Problems With The Electoral College & Suggested Reforms
Voter-Turnout & The Influence On The 2000 Election
Magnitude of Election 2000
Tues 23 Nov, 09:30, Smith 104, PSC 311.Modern Inaugural Addresses
Carter, Reagan, Bush 41’, Clinton, and Bush 43’Types of Phrases Common in Modern Inaugurals
Addresses tend to avoid controversy and politically charged language.
Share some common themes.
Some specific types of statements are common.
Historical ReflectiveJimmy Carter
Then and Now
Casual in comparison with the others.Reagan's First Inaugural
Quotes his high school teacher and the Bible.
Uses at least nine references to spirituality or religion.
Humble, recognizes own weaknesses.
Spends majority of address discussing economic issues.Reagan's Second Inaugural
Discusses more political issues more directly than any of the other seven Presidents.
Makes strong statements about the economy, the size of the federal government, and military spending.
A directly related to previous speechGeorge H.W. Bush
Re-visits issues and problems brought up in previous address and discusses his actions on those issues.
Is not as focused as previous speech, uses more of the standard types of phrases.
More reflective, less direct, but still more on point than others.
Begins with a prayer.William Jefferson Clinton
Discusses some basic planned initiatives.
Encourages Bi-Partisanship, addressing specific Democrats.
Discusses the role of a President.
Talks about ‘renewal’ and ‘rebirth.’ Encourages a new way of thinking.Clinton's Second Inaugural
Uses Historical/Reflective statements more than the others.
Focuses more on global concerns and problems.
Stylistically very similar to first inauguralGeorge W. Bush
Discusses achievements of his first term.
Brings up more policy goals for the second term.
Reviews international concerns and issues, most are the same as previous address.
Borrows introductory statement from Reagan.
Most of introduction is composed of historical/reflective statements.
Emphasizes national security, educational reform, personal responsibility.
Gabriel Thorn, "Palestinians and Israelis: Origins and Issues of the 1948 War."
Tues 23 Nov, 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302.
Israel: A House Divided
1947: UN votes to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab sectors
Original Israeli Boundaries
Previous Palestinian Lands
Lands Taken From Neighboring Nations
12% left as a result of expulsion by Jewish forcesIsraeli Position
59% because of direct military assault
15% because of fear of imminent attack
Accusations of massacres
4,942,121 dispossessed Palestinians
Over 1 million in refugee camps
Acquired lands largely unused (78% of Jews live in only 15% of land)
Israeli attempts at agriculture failed
Refugees cannot return to a country of which they are not a citizenThe Old City
Palestinian land cannot be well defined
Jewish citizens would be uprooted
Returning Palestinians would present a security problem
Palestinians left on Arab orders
Israel claims right of occupation and legitimizes it because it was attacked
Haram al Sharif on Mt. MoriahPeace?
Jewish expansions in the Old City
Extremists determined to “redeem” the city
Terrorist attacks on the Haram
Government turning a “blind eye” to agitators
Both Israel and Palestine need moderate, rational leadership
Israel must make some concession for Palestinian refugees to return to their lands
Occupied territories must be given either citizenship or independence. Free elections must be held.
Israel must cease attempts to destroy the Haram al Sharif
U.S. and Britain withdraw military support from Israel
Tues 30 Nov, 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302.Iranian Politics under the Shah & Theocracy, 1978-2004
Only Shia government in the worldHistory
Capital city: Tehran
Islamic republic in 1979
Muhammad Reza: King of Iran from 1941-79
1979: Shah leaves Iran
Ayatollah Khomeini returned from FranceGeographical Setting
Many people leave Iran
December 2nd, 1979: Iran, an Islamic country
July 27th, 1980 Shah died
1980: Saddam Hussein attacks the Iranian cities
American hostages released on January 1981
July 1988 the Iraq/Iran war ended
On June 4th,1989 Khomeini died
A. LocationSocial institutions
In the Middle East
Bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea
Northwest: cold winters and heavy snowfalls, Spring and Fall weather is mild, while summer is dry and hot
South: Mild winter, very hot summer
Consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins
Center of Iran consists of closed basins called the Central Plateau
Eastern part of the plateau covered by salt-desserts: Dashte kavir & Dashte Lut
No major rivers in the country
D. Minerals and Resources
Has one of the oldest oil industries in the Developing Countries
Second largest country in Natural Gas reserves
Highways: 167,157 km
303 Airports with only 125 paved runways
14,571,100 telephone lines (2003)
Radio broadcasting stations: AM 72, & FM 5
Internet Hosts: 5, 269 (2004)
Internet Users: Only 4,3 Million (2003)
Population: approximately 70 Million peoplePolitical System
Average Life expectancy: 69,66 %
Divided into 28 provinces
Religion: 89% follows Shia Islam, 9% Sunni Islam, other 2% are Jewish, Christian and Other
Islamic Republic of Iran since 1979Monarch
President: Muhammad Khatami
Supreme Leader: Ali Khamenei
Constitution revised in 1989 and eliminated Prime Ministership
King of Iran from 1941-1979New Government
During WWII, Britain and USSR
In 1941 the two countries occupied large areas of Iran
Forced Reza Shah Pahlavi to abdicate
Muhammad Reza Shah given the thrown
Shah reviving the army
In 1963: “White Revolution”
In 1967: crowned himself as king of the kings (Emperor of Iran) - & Farah Diba, as Shahbanoo (Emperess)
By mid-70’s had many enemies
Created the “SAVAK”
January 1979 Shah fled Iran
The exiled cleric Ayatollah Khomeini back to Iran
Khomeini as Islamic leader from 1979-1989Iran-Iraq War
1962 he telegraphed Reza Shah & the prime minister
June 1963: Khomeini delivered a speech (warning shah)
Shah sent for Khomeini’s arrest
Released after less than a month, but arrested again later
Sent to Turkey
Left Turkey and lived in Iraq for 13 years
On October 3rd, 1978 he moved to Paris
Shah was overthrown by people
December 2nd, 1979: Islamic republic of Iran
“First day of God’s government”
Lasted from 1980-1988Living Conditions
Shatt al Arab
The 1847 treaty
Both countries, Muslim nations
Sunni Iraqi leader vs. Shii Iranians
Saddam trying to establish himself as leader of Arab world
Iran as primary competition for regional dominance.
Syria, Lybia, China, and North Korea as Iran’s ally’s.
Israel supported Iran:
- Iraq viewed as a more immediate danger.
- A large number of Jews in Iran.
United States’ concerns
The security of weaker nations in region at risk
Economic security of western nations that depended on Gulf oil at risk
Reagan selling weapons to Iran
Initial sales through Israel
Using money to fund the Nicaraguan resistance in 1985
War finally ended in 1989
Iraq’s use of poison gas
Freedom of thought and expression
Freedom of the press
Release of political prisoners
Khatami as “elected reformer”?
Iranians rejecting tyranny and oppression
2003 Nobel Peace Prize (Shirin Ebadi)
Tues 30 Nov, 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302.Three Cuban Revolutionary Leaders:
Fulgencia Batista, Jose Marti, Fidel Castro and the RevolutionTotalitarian Regimes
A Senior Capstone
By Mary C. Hodo
Attempt to create and establish a utopian societyTotalitarian Regimes
Thought by some to be an extreme form of authoritarianism
“Radical” ideas about new ways of politics
Most frequent example- Communist regimes
Totalitarian regimes are more brutal than authoritarians- more people dieAuthoritarian Regimes
Create a “mass terror”- genocides of entire people, anyone they consider to be a threat
Seek to gain total control- politically, socially and economically
Are much more common today then totalitarian regimesAuthoritarian Regimes
No utopian ideas or goals
Governed by a single ruler or an “elite” group
Rulers tell the people that they must obey based on “moral or sacred” grounds, butBackground and Lead-in Pt 1
Do not hesitate to use direct brutal force when faced with any kind of rebellion of opposition, however
Common in Latin America- ruling committees- President (general), other generals.
Carlos Prio President before Fulgencia BatistaBackground and Lead in Pt 2
Batista- President from 1940-1944
Cuba’s Constitution –no consecutive terms
Batista took over from Prio in 1952- “Chief of State”, not President
Batista- Prio was planning revolt- he was allowed to leave the country by Batista
Batista- (1933-1940) could make or break a President, controlled Cuba, seemed to care for peopleBatista- 1933-1944
1952- formed own party, knew he couldn’t win, so seized the government
Cancelled the Presidential elections and suspended Congress
Banned strikes and protests
1933-1940- and 1940-1944- seemed to care more for the people, advocated for things like education and social welfare and reformBatista- 1933-1944
Military man (General) of strong character, good political mind
During these years, people were free to voice their opinions
Good reputation with U.S.- Batista compliant with Good Neighbor policyBatista- 1952-1959
Accepted monetary aid from the U.S.
Were at least 166 American businesses
166 American businesses by the end, including hotels and casinos- strong U.S. ties
New Batista gov’t- much harsher this time
Now, when anything negative was said or a protest held, harsher consequences than ever
Now,- instead of arresting and jailing- sent them to into exileJose Marti
“26th of July Movement”- Eastern Cuba
Result- Fidel and Raul Castro exiled to Central America for a few years
Military also killed people who opposed the regime- “freethinkers”
Conclusion: authoritarian (leaning towards totalitarian)
Freethinker, considered to be the founder of Cuban Revolutionary thoughtJose Marti
Born in Havana on Jan. 28, 1853
Was a legislator, poet, above all, a freethinker-
Poetry still significant today- Cuba’s first “truly” great poet and writer
Possibly most respected political mind in Cuba
Much of Marti’s life was spent fighting for Cuban independence from SpainJose Marti
No Cuban heritage, still, he wanted Cubans to unite, despite differences
He also fought for better conditions for workers- believed in the “poor man”
Marti- strong policy on justice- co revolutionaries fair and honestJose Marti
Theories on society and justice- interdependent
Told Cubans- not to be “complacent”, always want better
For Marti- freedom was the “essence of life” an “inescapable basis for all useful works”
Interpretation of freedom- 2 opinionsJose Marti
Had many ideas for post- independence, reshaping Cuba
Pride (national) and education were on his “plan” list
Believed that Cubans would all want it, once they saw it was possible
Marti would not live to see Cuban independence- was killed in battle on May 19, 1895Fidel Castro 1959-
Was said by Fidel Castro to be an “auteur intellectual” of the Revolution and its “political goals”
Ideas are still studied and used in studying social democracies
Prime Minister from 1959-1976Fidel Castro 1959-
President from 1976-
Major leader of Revolution
At first- seemed like he was going to help Cuba become a leader in Latin America
Belief in Communist doctrine- Cuba would become increasingly subject to “economic hardship and isolation”
Led “26th of July” revolt, 1953Fidel Castro 1959-
1956-1958 led revolt- “army” of rebels called the “26th of July Movement”
Major part of Revolution ended on Jan. 1, 1959, when Batista left Cuba
At first, the Cuban people thought they had won, that they were going to get change
Castro talked in 1963 about Cuba’s problems- blamed people, not his own policiesEmbargo on Cuba exports- medical supplies, soybeans, rice, and corn products
Believed in personalized interference in order to move the institutional system ahead
Castro grew more and more radical- focused more on developing Communism
Fidel Castro 1959-
Went from “moderate left” to more extreme radical as he gained power as PM
Put political opponents in prison
1960s- “embraced” Communism, began accepting aid from Soviets
Became hostile to U.S., who had helped Batista
1960- U.S. embargo on Cuba
Castro- “Yankee imperialism”- retaliated, seized the 166 U.S. businesses
1961- Bay of Pigs- Invasion of Cuba by U.S. and Cuban exiles- unsuccessful
1962-63- Cuban Missile Crisis
Fidel Castro 1959-
1991- Soviet Union collapsed, Castro isolated
Mid 1990s- thousands fleeing from regime
Jan 1998- Castro lets Pope visit- result, some political prisoners released
Fidel Castro 1959-
1998- 7 Cuban Americans- indicted for conspiracy and attempt to assassinate CastroFidel Castro 1959-
1999- 4 Cubans arrested for opposing a Communist government- 3 ½-5 years
1999- Elian Gonzalez- found in boat off coast of FL- mother and stepfather dies seeking refuge in U.S. with relatives
November 2004- Cuban dancers defected to U.S., gov’t told them it was illegal to come here and perform
Were granted asylum
Conclusion: Castro - authoritarian ruler, arrests political opponents, doesn't kill them
What now for Cuba? Should U.S. lift embargo, and allow direct travel there? Should they wait until Castro is out of office?
last class session., 11:00, FL 101, PSC 302. [PPT] [HTML]
The Cuban Revolution, The Bay of Pigs Invasion, The Cuban Missile Crisis
US trade Growing anti-communism attitude CIA covert operations
Fulgencio Batista Castro’s failed attack-1953 Revolutionary Campaign-1953-1959 Long-awaited Success-1959 Castro takes control
Castro cuts out US involvement Eisenhower’s plan CIA 1960 election Kennedy’s enthusiasm Cover up
The Plan The Attack Failure Kennedy’s embarrassment Soviet support of Cuba
[Images] US nuclear bases near USSR Soviet missile sites in Cuba Kennedy’s skepticism U-2 Flights
Soviet Missile Sites Kennedy’s Naval Quarantine Troops Assembled Soviet Deals Nuclear War averted
US trade embargo of Cuba Castro’s ruin of Cuban economy