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Terrorism Index & Notes | 9/11 Report: Lewis's & Arnett's Outlines | World Affairs Council

PSC 309: Terrorism and Developing Countries, Timetable

revised 6 Dec. 2013, with briefings, progress checks, by Jeremy Lewis.
No classes, Fall 2013: M 2, F 13 Sep., F 4, 11 & 18 Oct., & M-F 25-29 Nov. *CURRENT PROGRESS*
Week: [01] [02] [03] [04] [05] [06] [Test1] [07] [08] [09] [10] [Test2] [11] [12] [13] [ePaper] 14] [Final]
Dates, Reading and Topic
Week 1, 26-30 Aug
Introduction to syllabus and books
PART 1: POLITICS OF TERRORISM
Media coverage of tactical counter terrorist activity
Jon Boone, "Taliban claim success against Nato's night raids," Guardian, 31 Oct. 2010 [Jeremiah]
Nicholas Schmidle, "Getting Bin Laden: What happened that night in Abbottabad." The New Yorker, 8 Aug. 2011 [Hunter]
Jon Boone, "US helicopter shot down in Afghanistan was sent in after night raid went awry," The Guardian, 8 Aug. 2011 [Kaison]

- Is it ever justified to invade the territory of a sovereign state?| Discussion Notes NEW
- Can it be justified to shoot dead an unarmed man?
- Under what circumstances is it justified to shoot an unarmed woman?
- When is it justified to risk the lives of larger forces to rescue a smaller number who are under attack? Examples given 
- What are the basic tactics of the air assault, and what are the Taliban counter-measures?
- Should the  CIA and special forces be integrated -- or separated? What are the risks of each?
- Which is more likely to succeed: the high tempo of CT raids in the short term, or the slow COIN process?
- Is it likely that OBL was being protected -- not hunted -- by Pakistani forces?

The US Awakens to Terrorism: Al Qaeda's attacks upon the United States
Note that you should avoid being confused by the Arabic names and practical details of the hijackers -- focus on their strategy, tactics -- and the bureaucratic system's problems in responding.
9/11 Report: Summary | PDF (entire report, free at Commission's website)
01. We Have Some Planes | Summary [Blair; Hayden]
- To what degree was the US vulnerable to the 9/11 attacks?
- In what way did the hijackers exploit US systems of public transport?
- To what degree did the immediate US response show preparedness?
- In what ways did US personnel respond with improvisation and informal coordination?
- To what degree did the open society of the US leave us vulnerable?
- In what ways did agency "stove piping" leave us vulnerable?
Sam Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993 [Summary] [notes] [WKPD] [Map] [Archived] [Hunter, on theory]
Obituary: [The Times of London] [NY Times] [Notes] [Kaison, on the author]
- Has the clash of civilizations gone so far as to replace the clash of nation states?
- Why would cultural clashes go so far as wars?
- Is the Islamic world actually unified as a civilization?
G. John Ikenberry, review of two books by Peter J. Katzenstein, Anglo-America and its Discontents; and Sinicization," Foreign Affairs May/June 2013.  NEW [Dr. Lewis]
- Are civilizations only loose associations?
- Is there an emerging global civilization?
"Maps of War" (animated timeline of religions' development)
Week 2, 2-6 Sep
Al Qaeda's attacks upon the United States 
9/11 Report: Summary
02. Foundation of the New Terrorism | Summary [Blair]
- How did AQ's new form of terrorism evolve, and from what stimulus?
03. Counterterrorism Evolves | Summary [Nick]
- How did US CT evolve, and did it evolve fast enough?
- By Sep 2001, how did the Clinton and Bush administrations compare in their approaches to CT?
9/11 Report | Summary |Questions
04. Responses to Al Qaeda's Initial Assaults | Summary [Rhett]
- What did the US's initial responses tell us about the US CT system?
05. Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland | Summary [Jon > week 3]
- To what degree is the attack upon the homeland different from attacks upon US targets in Africa or Yemen?
06. From Threat to Threat | Summary [Jeremiah > week 3]
- How well did the US system prepare for a shift of targets to US soil?
Margaret Guroff, "The Wrong Man," Johns Hopkins Magazine, 31 Aug. 2011 [Kaison> week 3]
- How should information be extracted from captives? 
- Is torture permissible if it works?
- When is it permissible for an official to reveal organizational wrong-doing?
Week 3, 9-13 Sep, No F
9/11 Commission's Report:
07. The Attack Looms | Summary[Walt]
- How long did AQ take in the planning stages of the attacks?
08. The System Was Blinking Red | Summary [Hunter]
- Were there sufficient warnings for the Bush administration to take prior action?
09. Heroism & Horror | Summary [Blair]
- How well did initial responders cope with the assaults?
Richard Clarke's memo to national security adviser Condi Rice, about Al Qaida, on 25 Jan. 2001 - on NSA Facebook and on NSA Web (in more depth) [Hunter]
- Did the incoming W. Bush administration have any warning of the seriousness and urgency of the threat from Al Qaida?
9/11 Report: Recommendations 
10. Wartime | Summary [Jeremiah]
- Did the US need to make a transition from law enforcement to wartime?
11. Foresight -- and Hindsight | Summary [Justin]
- Should the US have foreseen terrorist attacks?
12. What to Do? A Global Strategy | Summary [Blair]
13. How to Do It? A Different Way of Organizing the Government | Summary [Jon]
- Did the US need to reorganize intelligence and law enforcement agencies?
- Did the US need law enforcement and intelligence agencies to communicate?
- Did the 9/11 attacks justify infringement on civil liberties?
- How many of the recommendations have been implemented?
Sun 15 Sep.
Dr. and Mrs. Lewis invite current and former students, with friends, to their home for an annual candle-lit dinner and outdoor games, 3-6 pm on Sunday 15 Sep.; see Dates page for any changes, and check email for driving directions.
High resolution images found here | Low resolution images here NEW
Week 4, 16-20 Sep
Violence & Terrorism
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '12-13 Questions
General questions:
- How can we define terrorism?
- How can we distinguish terrorism from general crime?
- What is the difference between terrorism and irregular warfare?
- What types of organizations can be classified as terrorist?

1. Joshua Sinai, 2008. "How to Define Terrorism". [Blair]
- What are the problems in defining terrorism?
- Can we improve upon the State department's definition or the USA PATRIOT Act definition?

2. Fred Burton, 2011. "Analyzing and Defining Terrorist Acts: What Types of Attacks Should Be Considered Terrorism". [Kaison]
- Can we establish a definition by considering each type of act?
- What predictive power is lost by excluding certain acts from the definition of terrorism?
3. James M. Lutz, 2010. "A Critical View of Critical Terrorism Studies". [Justin]
- How do we separate terrorism from other violent, criminal activity?
- Should state terrorism be included?
- Which types of governments can be counted as employing state terrorism?
- Does the critical terrorism studies school of thought have anything to teach mainstream CT studies?

- Does the concept of terrorism predate the modern era?
- What causes terrorism?
- How is it changing?

A collection of journalistic articles from sources online:
Philip Shenon, "The Terrible Missed Chance," Newsweek 12 Sep. 2011 [Dbx][Walt]
- What does it take to distill actionable intelligence from the general stream, and then to act decisively upon it?
- Why did the US miss the chance?
Andrew Sullivan, "Did Osama Win? Newsweek, 12 Sep. 2011 [Dbx] [Jeremiah]
- In what sense can a deadly NGO score a moral victory even if its personnel are killed?
- Did the US play into the hands of Islamic terrorists by overdoing its response?
Elisabeth Bumiller, "Soldier, Thinker, Hunter, Spy," NY Times, 4 Sep. 2011  [Dbx] [Hunter]
- Who are the administrators who work behind the CT forces?
Week 5, 23-27 Sep
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '12-13Questions
UNIT 2. Tactics of Terrorism['12-13 notes ['11/12 notes]
General questions:
- What tactics have been used and how can we defend against them?
- How might tactics change as we engage in surveillance and CT attacks?
- Can CT forces adapt faster than terrorist forces?
- What tactics require greater resources and skills?

4. Captain Billy J. Huntsman, 2010. "Suicide Attacks on the Rise." [Nick]
- Are suicide attacks just a tactic -- or a strategic means?

5. Ed Blanche, 2008. "The Al Qaeda Weapons Race Continues." [Justin]
- Whart sorts of WMD exist, and how difficult would it be for a terrorist group to obtain, train and deploy such weapons?
- Have we underestimated AQ's ability to find WMD?

6. Brian A. Jackson and David R. Frelinger, 2008. "Rifling through the Terrorists' Arsenal: Exploring Groups' Weapon Choices and Technology Strategies." [Rhett]
- How are weapons related to strategies of terrorism?
Considering the data tables:
- What are the most commonly used weapons singly and in combination - and why?
- Which weapons require more expertise to use?
- Which weapons are more effective for firing over a defensive wall?

Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '12-13Questions
UNIT 3. State-Sponsored Terrorism ['12-13 notes ['11/12 notes]
General questions:
- If terrorists always have a footprint, does that have to be in a nation state?
- What types of state sponsor terrorist groups, and how?
- What characteristics of terrorist groups make them attractive as proxies, to states?

7. Daniel Byman, 2008.  "Rogue Operators." [Jeremiah]

- Which states engage in sponsoring terrorist groups, and how?

8. William F. Jasper, 2009. "No State Sponsors, No Terror." [Blair]
- How do states support terrorism? With what instruments?
- Who are the state sponsors and how can one counter them?

9. Rolf Mowatt-Larssen, 2010. "Nightmares of Nuclear Terrorism." [Kaison]
- How might terrorists acquire and use nuclear weapons?

Contemporary readings from online sources:
Bruce Riedel, "Al Qaeda is Back," Newsweek/The Daily Beast, 26 July 2013  [Dbx] [Rhett]NEW
- While the US has killed much of the leadership, has AQ managed to return - and if so, how?

Sami Yousafzai & Ron Moreau, Too Radical for the Taliban, Newsweek, 30 Aug. 2013  [Dbx] [Notes] [Kaison]NEW
- Can even the Taliban be outflanked?

BBC, 2013, "Western jihadis 'killed in Somalia'"- BBC [Includes one from Daphne, AL]   [Dbx] [Jeremiah]NEW
- What drives even a native of Daphne, AL to fight for radical Islamist cause?
- What is the scale of the potential home-grown threat of radical Islam?

Consult the list of past speaker events at  www.AWAC.US for the notes of World Affairs Council speakers on US counter terrorism efforts abroad, and nation building

Documentary video, "The Secret War" PBS Frontline 2011
Video and further notes available on PBS.org
- To what degree is the Taliban/Al Qaeda movement supported and protected by the Pakistani army and ISI (intelligence)?
- To what degree can the US be effective in using special forces and local tribesmen to attack the enemy in Waziristan, calling in rockets fired from drones?
- To what degree do drone attacks arouse hostility from local people and link the US to a perceived global war against Islam?

Documentary video, "Fighting for the Taliban," PBS Frontline 2011
Video and further notes available on PBS.org
- Are the local warlord's forces actually linked to AQ more than by inspiration?
- Who supplies the local forces with living expenses, fuel, weapons and motorbikes?
- Why would local people support "Khan" instead of the national Afghan government?
- Why does Peter Bergen argue that OBL's attack on the US, while tactically clever, damaged the Taliban/AQ strategy in the middle east over a decade?

Week 6, 30 Sep-4 Oct, No F
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism 12-13Questions
UNIT 4. International Terrorism['12-13 notes] ['11/12 notes]
General questions:
- What motivates international terrorism? How is it distinct from domestic terrorism?
- What strategies do international groups adopt?
- What trends are there in international terrorism?
- What types of international groups are there?
- What are the targets of international terrorist groups?

10. Michael Petrou, 2009. "A State of Terror." [Nick]
- What is the risk that Somalia becomes a stronghold for terrorist groups?
- How dangerous are the policies and procedures of Al-Shabab?
11. Helena Smith, August 2010. "Greece Will Be a War Zone, Sect of Revolutionaries Warns Tourists."  [Reporter]
- What is the risk that economic austerity will turn anarchists to terrorism?
- What is the difference in strategy between the 17 November group and the latest terrorists?
12. Stephanie Hanson, 2009. "FARC, ELN: Colombia's Left-Wing Guerrillas." [Reporter]
- What Leftist groups are campaigning against the Colombian government, and is there any hope for the peace negotiations?
- What are the differences between the FARC and the ELN, and is either of them state supported?
13. Leah Farrall, 2011. "How al Qaeda Works: What the Organization's Subsidiaries Say about Its Strength." [Kaison]
- How is AQ constructed and what are its prospects for growth -- and remaining a threat?
- As AQ mutates into subsidiaries, will this prove more or less dangerous?
- Will the dispersal into subsidiaries of AQ loosen controls and weaken AQ?

Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '12-13Questions
UNIT 5. Terrorism in America ['12-13 notes ['11/12 notes] ['09-10 notes]
General questions:
- What motivates domestic terrorism? How is it distinct from international terrorism?
- What strategies do domestic groups adopt?
- What trends are there in domestic terrorism?
- What types of domestic groups are there?
- What are the targets of domestic terrorist groups?

14. Jonathan Masters, 2011. "Militant Extremists in the United States." [Blair]
- How do terrorist groups operate within the United States?
- What types of domestic terrorists are there? 
15. Judith Miller, 2010. "New Yorkistan: Initial Lessons from the Latest Homegrown Terror Plot." [Jeremiah]
- NYC has been a target, but has it also emerged as a source of terrorists?
- What types of local New Yorkers become would-be terrorists, and why?
- How many plots have been thwarted by the NYPD's CT operations -- and how many can we expect in future?
16. Scott Stewart, 2010. "Escalating Violence from the Animal Liberation Front." [Reporter]
- Is it moral to set free animals imprisoned for research purposes?
- What types of offenses have the ALF perpetrated, and what sense are they terrorists?
17. Mark Potok, 2011. "The Year in Hate and Extremism, 2010." [Rhett]

- What US groups should be included among terrorists?
- Have domestic terrorists been coopted by the nonviolent right, such as the Tea Party, and therefore the violent groups been reduced -- or have the violent groups been stimulated?
- What is the effect on rightist militias of President Obama's being elected?


See Dates page for TEST 1; covering all materials listed before the date; a mixture of multiple choice, paragraphs, and an essay.
Since there is no Friday class in 2013, Unit 6 has been moved > Week 7.

Week 7, 7-11 Oct, No F
UNIT 6. Terrorism and the Media ['12-13 notes ['10-11 notes]Moved > Week 7
General questions:
- If media publicity is the oxygen of terrorist campaigns, should they be barred from interviewing terrorists?
- Do media tend to reflect the State's or the terrorist group's point of view?
- Does the internet render the media uncontrollable?
- Should YouTube take down any videos posted by terrorist groups of their attacks?
- Could terrorist groups' websites be shut down?
- Does the internet enable security services' snooping more than it helps terrorists?
- Has posing as journalists been used more by assassins or by surveillance authorities?

18. Amani Ismail, 2009. "Communicating Politics Online: The Rhetoric of "Terrorism" and "Resistance." [Reporter]
- Can Palestinan groups use the media to develop a positive culture of terrorism?
19. Mark Hayes and Paul Norris, 2010. "Paramilitary Groups in Northern Ireland, the Media War and the State: Semantics and Symbiosis—A Comparative Case Study of the PIRA and UDA." [Reporter]
- Instead of relaying terrorist propaganda, did the media in Northern Ireland actually reflect the policies of the state?
20. Andrew Potter, Maclean's, July 2008.  "Jihad with a Hip-Hop Pose Is an Easier Sell with Youth." [Kaison]
- Is it feasible to recruit gangsta jidadis?
21. Omar Ashour, 2010. "Online De-Radicalization' Countering Violent Extremist Narratives: Message, Messenger and Media Strategy." [Reporter]
- Is there any way to provide moderate narratives via the media to de-radicalize a population?

The Portuguese Waterboard Dog, cartoon by Peter Brookes, The Times (UK), 2009 [link replaced, also see DBX or find on Google images]
Also:
- How do international terrorist groups exploit the western mass media?
- What are the communications strategies of terrorist groups?
- To protect us from terrorism, should governments restrain the communications media?
- How should the media cover terrorism?
- How will media developments of the future affect the opportunities for terrorism?
 
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '12-13 Questions
UNIT 7. Terrorism and Religion ['12-13 notes ['10/11 notes]
General questions:
- Is religion generally a force for peace rather than terrorism?
- Is an Islamic caliphate across the former Ottoman empire a goal of Islamic terrorism?
- Is the destruction of Western Christians a goal of Islamic terrorism? 
- Is this in tension with the desire for a caliphate?
- Is Hinduism a motivation for terrorism?
- Is intentional suicide bombing only associated with Islam?
- Why did the IRA not engage in intentional suicide bombing?
- Can religion ever be as powerful a motivator as nationalism (or irredentism)?
- How can a State defend against terrorism motivated by religion?

22. Thomas Rid, 2010. "Cracks in the Jihad." [Reporter]
- Does the separation of local and global terrorist groups reduce or increase the risk to the US?
23. Joshua Muravchik and Charles Szrom, 2008. "In Search of Moderate Muslims." [Reporter]
- What questions would identify moderate Muslim groups?
24. Kapil Komireddi, 2011. "India Must Face up to Hindu Terrorism." [Reporter]
- Has India defended itself against Hindu extremists -- and should it alter its approach?
25. Hüseyin Cinoglu, 2010. "Sociological Understanding of the Relationship between Terrorism and Religion." [Reporter]
- How has religion been exploited by terrorist groups?

Tests returned with comments and model paragraphs presented by students (during this, you may not write or type)
Further discussion of patterns found in the tables of terrorist weapons usage in reading 6: Jackson and Frelinger, 2008.
 

UNIT 8. Women and Terrorism ['12-13 notes ['10-11 notes]
General questions:
- Have women historically been victims rather than perpetrators of political violence?
- Can most women be trained to attack civilian populations for a political idea?
- What characteristics make women hard to defend against?
- What have been the roles of women in warfare, espionage and in terrorism?
- Is there any truth to the thesis that "black widows" make effective converts to terrorism?
- Are terrorist groups inhibited by their ideology from using women?
- Are there some causes and some cultures where women are featured as terrorists?
26. Female Suicide Bombers: a Global Trend, Mia Bloom, 2007 [Reporter]
- How do international terrorist groups exploit females?
- Why were so few women employed as terrorists in past decades?
27. Picked Last: Women and Terrorism, Alisa Stack O'Connor, 2007 [Reporter]
- How should counter terrorism target the genders?
- Do women employ a different rhetoric of terrorism?
28. Claudia Forster-Towne, 2010. "Terrorism in Africa: The Role of Women in Terrorist Groups."[Reporter]
- How are young girls exploited in African wars?
29. Yossef Bodansky, 2010. "The Moscow Bombing: An Inevitable Victory for Moscow, but a Hard Struggle Ahead." [Reporter]
- What motivated Black Widows to place bombs in the Metro?

Since there is no Friday class in 2013, Unit 9 has been moved > Week 8.

Week 8, 14-18 Oct, No F
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '12-13 Questions
UNIT 9. Government Response ['12-13 notes]  ['10-11 notes]
General questions:
- What choices of response do governments face?
- Do law enforcement strategies have a successful track record with some types of terrorism?
- Is prevention of terrorism being taken far enough?
- How do governments attempt to surveill terrorism, and what are the limitations?
- What are the advantages of covert responses, including targetted assassination and arrest?
- What are the advantages of infantry occupation and regime change?
- What are the advantages of financial blocking?
- What are the advantages of hardening targets?

30. Fareed Zakaria, 2010. "The Jihad against the Jihadis: How Moderate Muslim Leaders Waged War on Extremists And Won." [Jeremiah]
- Have moderate political leaders managed to reduce public support for violence in Islamic societies? 
- Have Muslim religious authorities been willing and effective in denouncing violence?
31. Arie W. Kruglanski, Michele W. Gelfand, and Rohan Gunaratna, 2010. "Detainee Deradicalization: A Challenge for Psychological Science." [Rhett]
- What variables determine whether a detainee can be turned from violence?
- What has been the experience of countries that have tried to re-educate detainees?
- is re-education too soft?
32. Andrew C. McCarthy, 2010. "Enemies, Not Defendants: Let the Law of War Meet the War on Terror." [Nolen]
- Should detainees be treated as combatants or defendants?
- What are the risks of using law enforcement prosecution against detainees?

15 October 2013: President will award the Medal of Honor to Capt. William Swenson for actions in the battle of Ganjgal, Afghanistan, Sep. 2009 (Army account) in which Marine Cpl. Dakota Meyer's actions received the same medal. Delay in Swensen's award is controversial, since he had criticized army superiors for declining air support during firefight (some were reportedly disciplined for ineffectiveness).
UNIT 10. Future Threats ['12-13 notes] ['10-11 notes] moved >> Mon. week 9
General questions:
- What types of weapons might be used in future?
- What new causes of terrorism might emerge?
- What threats might come from climate change, migration and resource shortages?
- Will future conflicts come more from non-state actors than states?
- Can terrorist groups be co-opted in democracies?
- How might international terrorism mutate, and spread?
- WIll Western minority populations adopt foreign jihadi ideology?
- Will the cost of prevention prove too expensive to maintain?

33. The Shifting Face of Violence, Theodor H. Winkler, 2008[Walt]
- How will the war against terrorism evolve?
- Will the war on terrorism last a whole generation or just five years?
34. Al Qaeda at 20 Dead or Alive?, Peter Bergen, 2008 [Nick]
- How has Al Qaeda mutated since 2001? Can the US match its changes?
35. John T. Picarelli, 2009. "The Future of Terrorism." [Nick]
- How do leading experts differ on the nature of the terrorist threat, and what insights can law enforcement offer?

Terrorism and Counter Terrorism (CT)
Col. Russell Howard, Presentation to AWAC, Tue 8 Nov. '05, on modern terrorism.[Hunter]
- What (before 2001) would be needed for the US to face up to terrorism?
- How are modern international terrorists better than their predecessors?
- In what sense are Americans part of the problem for CT?
- Should the US employ torture to extract information from captives?
JRT Lewis [Slide] Legal constraints on Interrogations
Notes on US policy on interrogations and torture
- How does US and international law constrain the US from using torture?

Pew global attitudes survey, July 2005, attitudes to Islamist terrorism. 
[Chart and summary by Dr. Lewis]
- How do nations support or oppose Islamist terrorism?
- Should the Bush administration have assuaged world opinion?
- Has the Bush administration's war in Iraq been counter-productive?

Inserted when feasible, not tested unless shown
Beslan: Siege of School No.1 (PBS, Wide Angle film) 
PBS notes on the film [massacre, 1 Sep. 2004, Ingushetia, the Caucasus]
For detailed map, click here and use zoom (e.g. can see Beslan in Ingushetia,
just up & to left of label "North Ossetia")
- What is the cause of this conflict?
- What are the stakes?
- Who tries to negotiate, and with what authority?
- What is the prospect for a negotiated solution?
- What CT response techniques go wrong or are missing?

Since there is no Friday class in 2013, The Beslan film has been postponed

Week 9, 21-25 Oct
PART 2: POLITICS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Hauss 11: Less Developed Countries | Discussion Notes
Thinking about Less Developed World
Evolution of LDC Politics
Political Culture
Political Participation
Weak States
Public policy: Myths and realities of Development
- How can we properly compare nations and states?
- What are the proper units and benchmarks of comparison?
- How can we analyze a moving target?
- What themes can we use for comparison?
- What neutral point is there to begin our comparison?
Griffiths, Unit 1. Understanding the developing world[selections only]
1. Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel, "How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know about Modernization," Foreign Affairs, 2009 [Walt]
- How do economic development and cultural changes influence the drive for democracy?
- In what ways do economic changes propel societal changes?
- How do Marxist and capitalist theories explain economic development?
- Does economic development lead changes that are conducive to democracy?
- Will emergent economies backslide into authoritarianism?
- Can we make countries into democracies in the absence of security or middle income?

2. Jack A. Goldstone, The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends that Will Change the World, Foreign Affairs, 2010 [Kaison]
- How will demographic changes affect the balance of developed and developing world, rich and poor, rural and  urban populations?
- Will shifting trends actually stop population growth?
- Will cities continue to grow - or will population move to the countryside?
- Can people retire from the North to the South, shifting the cost burden?

3. Charles Kenny, "Best. Decade. Ever." Foreign Policy, 2010 [Jeremiah]
- While developed countries faced a difficult decade in the 2000s, how will developing countries remember the decade?
- In what ways did health and income improve in developing countries?
- Has poverty grown or shrunken in the decade, and where?
- What challenges remain from the last decade of development?

5. Charles A. Kupchan, "The Democratic Malaise: Globalization and the Threat to the West," Foreign Affairs, 2012[Hayden]
- If globalization drives wealth and power to the developing countries, how does that affect developed countries?
- Does the 'rise of the rest' mean difficulty for the West?

Griffiths, Unit 2. Political economy & the developing world [selections only]
6. Nancy Birdsall and Francis Fukuyama, "The Post-Washington Consensus: Development after the Crisis," Foreign Affairs, 2011. [Blair]
- WIll developing countries still trust the western financial model after the 2008 crisis?
- Will they be more wary of international capitalism and capital flows?
- Will they be more inclined to support social spending and regulation of capitalism at home?

7. Eswar S. Prasad, "Role Reversal," Finance and Development, 2011. [Hunter]
- Have emerging markets rebounded from the 2008-09 financial crisis and world economic crisis more quickly than the Western industrialized countries, and what are the consequences? 
- What kinds of data can be used to compare, and answer this question?
- Will emerging markets in future be more or less vulnerable to market swings?

12. Jean-Michel Severino and Olivier Ray, "Taking the Measure of Global Aid," Current History, 2010.  [Justin]
- Is the concept of official development aid outmoded and should it be replaced by programs that better promote global public goods and recognize the challenges of globalization? 
- Can we engage a wider range of actors, in a larger number of ways to both provide assistance and measure its effectiveness?

13. Philippe Douste-Blazy and Daniel Altman, A Few Dollars at a Time: How to Tap Consumers for Development," Foreign Affairs, 2010. [Nick]
- What percentage of LDCs' deaths are caused by preventable diseases?
- Can we tackle HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis together, and how can we fund such efforts?
- What types of innovative financing could reduce these diseases?

14. Charles Kenny, "Haiti Doesn't Need Your Old T-Shirt," Foreign Policy, 2011. [Rhett]
- Is it counterproductive to donate clothing and other goods to developing countries?
- Are there are better ways to aid needy citizens in the developing world? 
- What is wrong with giving old clothes to the poor in developing countries?

Week 10, 28 Oct-1, Nov, No F
See Dates page for TEST 2, covering all the above, except any film not shown; a mixture of multiple choice, paragraphs, and an essay. 

Tests returned with comments and model paragraphs presented by students (During this, nobody takes notes or records discussion).
 

Comparison of capitalist, Social Dem. and communist countries, using CIA World Factbook:
- Which types are richer (higher per capita income at PPP)? [Taylor]
- India is a large, capitalist country and China a large, officially 'communist' country: compare them.[Jeremiah]
See GDP per cap table
- Which are more unequal in incomes? Is equality a goal of states? [Mike]
See Gini index rankings: 25 is low inequality, 50+ is high
Gini curve of Denmark, Hungary and Namibia

How can we compare population trends or spending on public programs? NEW
Selected images from Google images search:
Population pyramid of Hungary (official, 2005)
Compare health care spending across Western Europe (OECD 2010; cf USA 18-19% of GDP)

Week 11, 4-8 Nov 
Hauss 8: Current and Former Communist Regimes | Discussion Notes
Thinking About Communism
Socialism, Marxism, Leninism
The Marxist-Leninist State
The Crisis of Communism: Suicide by Public Policy
Transitions
Troubled Transitions: The Former Soviet Union

Questions based on the text:
- Why should there be any nostalgia for past communist regimes?
- Why should former communist parties attract voters in new democracies?
- What was the role of Gorbachev in the transition from communism?
- What did perestroika and glasnost mean to Russians?
- Are there any truly Marxist countries left?
- In what way does thinking about communist regimes expose our assumptions about government?
- What are the tenets of Socialism, Marxism and Leninism?
- What was democratic centralism? A command economy?
- How did Orwell's Animal Farm satirize Stalin?
- How are liberals and socialists divided on the means of production? equality of outcome? the spread of democracy?
- What to Marx are the economic base? contradictions?  superstructure? need for revolution?



More general questions:
- How do Socialism, Marxism and Leninism differ?
- What was missing from Socialism that Marx sought to add?
- What was missing from Marxism that Lenin sought to add?
- How did Lenin seek to turn theory into practice?
- Why did communist regimes decline and fall in the 1980s?
- Why did Russia not develop smoothly (economically and politically) post 1989?
Hauss 9: Russia | Discussion Notes | Maps of Asia| Maps of Russia
Russia's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Kaison]
Brief Lecture on Russian revolutionary history
Hauss:
Thinking About Russia
The Evolution of the Russian State
Between Dictatorship and Democracy
Political Culture and Participation
The Russian State
Public Policy

- What was the history of Russian political institutions before 1917?
- Why did Bolsheviki overturn the Russian state?
- How did Stalin replace Lenin in control of the state?
- Who should control the nation state?
- If the State works for the people, why is there a need to restrain it?
- Why did Marxist-Leninist regimes fail to develop economically alongside other regimes?

Hauss 10: China | Maps of Asia | Discussion Notes|
Questions on Joseph's textbook (discontinued)
China's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Hunter]
Brief Lecture on Chinese revolutionary history
Hauss:
Thinking about China
Evolution of Chinese Politics
Political Culture
Political Participation
Chinese State
Public policy

Comparing Chinese and Russian communism in power: Discussion Notes
- How does China's heritage affect development?
- How did China awake to the modern age?
- How did Maoism take root in China?
- What were the effects of the civil war on China?
- How did communism constrain China's modern development?
- How did the CCP open up economics to market forces?

Griffiths, Unit 3: Conflict and instability [selections only]
19. Joshua S. Goldstein, "World Peace Could Be Closer Than You Think," Foreign Policy, 2011. [Rhett]
- Is the world is a more violent place -- or have deaths in war actually declined over the past decade? 
- How does modern conventional conflict compare in its destructiveness with teh second world war?
- [How has precision guided weaponry affected the level of collateral (civilian) damage?]
- Are technological advances are making war more or less brutal, especially for civilians. 
- Of the conflicts thought to be intractable, how many have ended or declined?

20. Frederic Wehrey, "Uprisings Jolt the Saudi-Iranian Rivalry," Current History, 2011.  [Justin]
- How has the Arab spring affected the competition for regional influence between Iran and Saudi Arabia?
- What factors have sharpened or softened tensions between the rivals?

25. Jon Western and Joshua S. Goldstein, "Humanitarian Intervention Comes of Age: Lessons from Somalia to Libya," Foreign Affairs, 2011. [Hunter]
- Do past humanitarian interventions justify skepticism about the effectiveness of the international community's efforts to protect civilians?
- Have lightly armed UN peacekeepers been effective in preventing resurgence of conflict?
- Have more heavily armed NATO forces been effective in ending conflicts (peacemaking)?
- What lessons have been learned from such interventions?

26. Benjamin A. Valentino, "The True Costs of Humanitarian Intervention," Foreign Affairs, 2011.  [Justin]
- Did the benefits of intervention in Libya outweigh the costs of this operation?
- How much expended ordnance (e.g. missiles) does it take, on average, to save each life in a conflict?
- Could lives instead be saved by preventing conflict in the first place and by focusing on providing for those displaced by conflict?

27. Neil Howe and Richard Jackson, "Global Aging and the Crisis of the 2020s," Current History, 2011.  [Reporter]
- WIll the balance of power be altered by the aging of the industrialized world?
- How will global relations be affected by the growth of the developing world's population ?
- What will be the impact on economic growth and productivity as well as security and stability?

Griffiths, Unit 4: Political Change in the developing world [selections only]
28. Jack A. Goldstone, "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies," Foreign Affairs, 2011.  [Walt]
- What factors cause political turmoil in the Middle East? 
- What is the likelihood of a transition to democracy in the aftermath of this upheaval?

29. Fouad Ajami, "The Arab Spring at One," Foreign Affairs, 2012.[Hayden]
- What have been the effects of the year since the Arab Spring, and what will be the shape of the new regimes?

30. The Africa Report, "Good Soldier, Bad Cop," 2011.  [Nick]
- What roles have the military played in the political turmoil in Tunisia and Egypt? 
- How will the armed forces  react in other countries facing demands for reform?

31. Emile Nakhleh, "'Moderates' Redefined: How to Deal with Political Islam," Current History, 2009.  [Nick]
- Have Islamic political parties changed their political ideologies over time, have they moderated their demands for Sharia, and are they are more inclined to participate in electoral and legislative politics? 
- Are Islamic movements becoming more ideological or more pragmatic in the Middle east and beyond? 
- Are the radical politics favored by al Qaeda on the wane -- or will extremism continue to be a problem?

39. Gary J. Bass, "Human Rights Last," Foreign Policy, 2011. [Blair]
- Should we be concerned about Chinese engagement with some of the world's worst human rights offenders? 
- Is Beijing's policy of engagement driven primarily by economic or power considerations?
- How has the Chinese government supported or urged reform upon repressive governments such as those of Sudan and Zimbabwe?

40. Jorge G. Castañeda, "Not Ready for Prime Time: Why Including Emerging Powers at the Helm Would Hurt Global Governance," Foreign Affairs, 2010. 
- Should emerging countries have more influence in international institutions? 
- Do emerging powers have commitments to human rights, free trade, non-proliferation, and environmental preservation?
- Would their participation undermine efforts aimed at greater global governance?

Griffiths, Unit 5: Population, resources, environment and health [selections only]
41. Michael T. Klare, "The End of Easy Everything," Current History, 2012.  [Jeremiah]
- As the easiest sources of energy and minerals are depleted, will we have to employ more difficult, expensive, and dangerous methods to extract resources? 
- What proportion of these resources are located in countries plagued by corruption and conflict?
- Will this drive up prices for other commodities?

42. David J. Rothkopf, "Is a Green World a Safer World? Not Necessarily," Foreign Policy, 2009.  [Nick]
- Will a greener energy world be a more peaceful one? 
- In what ways could trade disputes, and resource scarcity, bring security challenges for both industrialized and developing countries?

43. Erik R. Peterson and Rachel A. Posner, "The World's Water Challenge," Current History, 2010.  [Kaison]
- How much of the world's population lacks access to potable water and adequate sanitation? 
- What efforts have been made to establish a value for water that will promote more efficient use of increasingly scarce water resources?
Maps of rivers flowing across national borders: Nile (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and others, to Egypt) | Euphrates (Turkey and Syria to Iraq) NEW [Better map links inserted after display in class]

45. Lester R. Brown, "The New Geopolitics of Food," Foreign Policy, 2011. [Reporter]
- The upward trend in food prices is being driven by which factors?
- Will wealthier countries turn to increased production - or to land acquisitions in poor countries?

Women and Development
General questions about mobilizing women for development: NEW
Does educating women have a multiplier effect since it also educates children?
Do De Tocqueville's comments about American women translate to modern developing countries?
Do developed workplace rules support women increasingly well - is that a potential factor in development?
Do western welfare states support women more than men, and could that aid developing nations?
Do women chatter [converse] more than men -  and will they succeed in related businesses & professions?
Do women who are used to caring for children and older relatives pay more attention to long term development, and will this translate to developing small businesses more successfully?
Are women inherently more peaceful than men, especially young men, and can this translate to development of peave and prosperity?
Will women develop village businesses and repay microloans better than men?

Griffiths, Unit 6: Women & development[selections only]
46. Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn, The Women's Crusade, The New York Times Magazine, 2009.  [Kaison]
- What is the evidence that the marginalization of women and girls throughout large portions of the developing world not only holds these women back but contributes to global poverty and political extremism? 
- Can educating girls and providing access to credit through microfinancing have an impact on poor families? 
- Should the US direct more foreign aid toward women, improving reproductive health, and focusing on keeping girls in school?

47. Mervat Hatem, "Gender and Revolution in Egypt," Middle East Report, 2011. [Reporter]
- Were women participants in the uprising that removed Hosni Mubarak from power in Egypt? 
- Have the military government and both the Islamic and Christian establishments been slow to engage on women's issues and to what degree is there resistance to enhancing the status of women?

48. Radhika Coomaraswamy, "Girls in War: Sex Slave, Mother, Domestic Aide, Combatant," UN Chronicle, 2009.  [Blair]
- In what ways are girls and women vulnerable in armed conflicts? 
- How has the international community responded to hold those responsible for crimes against women accountable?

50. Isobel Coleman, "The Global Glass Ceiling: Why Empowering Women Is Good for Business," Foreign Affairs, 2010. [Blair]
- In what ways is international business beginning to realize the benefits of empowering women in the developing world?
- What programs have multinationals begun to invest in health, education, and leadership development for women and girls in developing countries? 
- To what degree can such programs help to reduce gender disparities and improve society as well as contributing to the company's bottom line?

Women, War and Peace: Liberia (Documentary film, PBS, 2009) (Logically fits here; shown in class, 22 Nov. 2013; further programming is linked from notes)
- What were the motivations for the civil war?
- What were the divisions in the country?
- What were the motivations for the women's peace movement?
- How did the women put pressure on the rival factions to negotiate a peace?
- What part was played by international pressure?
- What became of the women after the end of the documentary (see further programming links)
- In what ways is this a sign of a trend worldwide - or is this overstated?

Hauss 12: India | Maps | Discussion Notes
India's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Mike]
Thinking about India
Evolution of Indian Politics
Political Culture
Political Participation
Indian State
Public policy

- How does India's heritage affect development?
- How did India achieve independence?
- How did India forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could India exploit for development?
- Does India show that development is compatible with open democracy?

Week 12, 11-15 Nov
Hauss 16: Latin America | Maps | Discussion Notes on Latin America
Mexico | Maps | Discussion Notes on Mexico | Briefing on Mexico's modern regimes from 1863 
Mexico's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Taylor]
Thinking about Mexico
Evolution of the Mexican State
Political Culture 
Political Participation
The Mexican State
Public Policy

- How does Mexico's heritage affect development?
- How did Mexico achieve independence?
- How did Mexico forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could Mexico exploit for development?
- Does Mexico show that development is compatible with open democracy?
- How is Mexico affected by proximity to the US?

Hauss 15: Africa | Maps
Nigeria | Maps | Discussion Notes
Nigeria's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Andy]
Thinking about Nigeria
Evolution of the Nigerian State
Political Culture and Participation
The Nigerian State
Public Policy

- How does Nigeria's heritage affect development?
- How did Nigeria achieve independence?
- How did Nigeria forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could Nigeria exploit for development?
- Does Nigeria show that development is compatible with open democracy?

Week 13, 18-22 Nov
The Middle East | Maps | Persia and Arabia | Discussion Notes
Wide Angle or Frontline World documentary film
- Are the issues and problems very different outside the US?
PBS, The House of Saud | Maps of Saudi Arabia |
Saudi Arabia's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Mike]
- Why did Saudi Arabia become Wahhabist?
- By what bargain did the US exploit Saudi oil?
- What tensions have occurred in the US-Saudi relationship?
Speech of Amb. Ryan Crocker to AWAC, 3 Nov. '09 [Reporter]
(Amb. Crocker has been envoy to Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan)
- How can we define the Middle East?
- How do Middle Eastern countries view our engagements in the region?
- How should we begin -- or end-- any engagement?
Hauss 13: Iran| Maps| Discussion Notes
Iran's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporter]
The Basics
Evolution of the Iranian State
The People and Politics
The Iranian State
Public Policy
- How does Iran's heritage affect development?
- How did Iran achieve independence?
- How does Iran exploit oil for development?
- How is development affected by Iran's relations with the global community?
- Does Iran show that development is compatible with theocracy?
For the eProject, deliverable by TurnItIn, see Dates page, Citations page and Requirements page
Note that, for readability, eProjects are now delivered to <jLewis> as well as to Turnitin. 
25-29 Nov: Thanksgiving week: no classes
Week 14, 2-6 Dec
Briefings of research:
Justin Nolen & Rhett Williams, Media & Terrorism
Hayden Pugh, Cyber Terrorism
Michael Huckle, Causes of Terrorism
Taylor Belsterling, Ineffective security US pre 9/11

The Endgame (2009), [NOTES] shown in last class [half], in honor of Nelson Mandela's life (The Long Walk of Nelson Mandela, PBS biographical video). NEW

Students should prepare, with Atlas, for Maps exercise.

Hauss 14: Iraq | Maps of Iraq | Discussion Notes
Iraq's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporter]
Fiasco
Thinking About Iraq
Basics
Evolution
Iraq Under Saddam
The State Under Saddam
Public Policy
The Third War and the New Iraq
Hauss 17: Conclusion
Danger ... and Opportunity
Crisis
Danger
The Wheel of Fortune
Constraints on States and Citizens
Opportunity

- How can we properly compare nation states?
- How much of under development is to be blamed on colonialism?
- In development, "to understand all, is to forgive all" -- true?

Exams, 9-13 Dec
Comprehensive final exam at 0830 on Wed. 11 Dec. 2013, for two hours; expect multiple choice and essay questions, in usual classroom. May include Maps exercise.