The US Awakens to Terrorism: Al Qaeda's attacks upon the United StatesWeek 2
Note that you should avoid being confused by the Arabic names and practical details of the hijackers -- focus on their strategy, tactics -- and the bureaucratic system's problems in responding.
9/11 Commission's Report: Summary | PDF (entire report, free at Commission's website)
01. We Have Some Planes | Summary [Reporter]
- To what degree was the US vulnerable to the 9/11 attacks?
- In what way did the hijackers exploit US systems of public transport?
- To what degree did the immediate US response show preparedness?
- In what ways did US personnel respond with improvisation and informal coordination?
- To what degree did the open society of the US leave us vulnerable?
- In what ways did agency "stove piping" leave us vulnerable?
Sam Huntington, "The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993 [Lewis, PPT][Gdrive]
[Summary] [notes] [WKPD] [Map] [Archived] [Reporter, on theory]
- Why would cultural clashes go so far as wars?
- Is the Islamic world actually unified as a civilization?
G. John Ikenberry, review of two books by Peter J. Katzenstein, Anglo-America and its Discontents; and Sinicization," Foreign Affairs May/June 2013. [Katy]
- Are civilizations only loose associations?
- Is there an emerging global civilization?
"Maps of War" (animated timeline of religions' development)Al Qaeda's attacks upon the United States | LectureWeek 3
9/11 Commission's Report:Summary
02. Foundation of the New Terrorism | Summary[Lewis, PPT]
- How did AQ's new form of terrorism evolve, and from what stimulus?
03. Counterterrorism Evolves | Summary[Lewis, PPT]
- How did US Counter Terrorism (CT) evolve, and did it evolve fast enough?
- By Sep 2001, how did the Clinton and Bush administrations compare in their approaches to CT?
9/11 Commission's Report | Summary | Questions
04. Responses to Al Qaeda's Initial Assaults | Summary[Lewis, PPT]
- What did the US's initial responses tell us about the US CT system?
05. Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland | Summary[Lewis, PPT]
- To what degree is the attack upon the homeland different from attacks upon US targets in Africa or Yemen?
06. From Threat to Threat | Summary[Lewis, PPT]
- How well did the US system prepare for a shift of targets to US soil?9/11 Commission's Report: | Lecture
07. The Attack Looms | Summary[Lewis, PPT] [Katy]
- How long did AQ take in the planning stages of the attacks?
08. The System Was Blinking Red | Summary [Lewis, PPT] [Nolan]
- Were there sufficient warnings for the Bush administration to take prior action?
09. Heroism & Horror | Summary[Lewis, PPT] [Ben]
- How well did initial responders cope with the assaults?
Richard Clarke's memo to national security adviser Condi Rice, about Al Qaida, on 25 Jan. 2001 - on NSA Facebook and on NSA Web (in more depth) [Heith]
- Did the incoming W. Bush administration have any warning of the seriousness and urgency of the threat from Al Qaida?
9/11 Commission's Report: Recommendations | Lecture10. Wartime | Summary[Lewis, PPT] [Jack]
- Did the US need to make a transition from law enforcement to wartime?
11. Foresight -- and Hindsight | Summary[Lewis, PPT] [Reporter]
- Should the US have foreseen terrorist attacks?
12. What to Do? A Global Strategy | Summary [Lewis, PPT] [Reporter]
13. How to Do It? A Different Way of Organizing the Government | Summary[Lewis, PPT] [Reporter]
- Did the US need to reorganize intelligence and law enforcement agencies?
- Did the US need law enforcement and intelligence agencies to communicate?
- Did the 9/11 attacks justify infringement on civil liberties?
- How many of the recommendations have been implemented?
Dr. and Mrs. Lewis invite current and former students, with friends, to their home for an annual dinner party at home, 4-6 pm on Sunday; see Dates page for any changes, and check email for driving directions.
High resolution images found here | Low resolution images here
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism '14-15 Questions
Online site for Badey (ed), '12-13, old 13th edition, with practice quizzes.
UNIT 1. The Concept of Terrorism | Lecture[Shannen]
['12-13 notes] ['11-12 notes]
- How can we define terrorism?
- How can we distinguish terrorism from general crime?
- What is the difference between terrorism and irregular warfare?
- What types of organizations can be classified as terrorist?
- Does the concept of terrorism predate the modern era?
- What causes terrorism?
- How is it changing?UNIT 2. Tactics of Terrorism | Lecture[Dylan]
['12-13 notes] ['11-12 notes]
- What tactics have been used and how can we defend against them?
- How might tactics change as we engage in surveillance and CT attacks?
- Can CT forces adapt faster than terrorist forces?
- What tactics require greater resources and skills?
UNIT 3. State-Sponsored Terrorism | Lecture
['12-13 notes] ['11-12 notes]
- If terrorists always have a footprint, does that have to be in a nation state?
- What types of state sponsor terrorist groups, and how?
- What characteristics of terrorist groups make them attractive as proxies, to states?
Possible showing of a documentary film on a terrorism related topicWeek 5Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 4. International Terrorism | Lecture[Reporters]
['12-13 notes] ['11-12 notes]
- What motivates international terrorism? How is it distinct from domestic terrorism?
- What strategies do international groups adopt?
- What trends are there in international terrorism?
- What types of international groups are there?
- What are the targets of international terrorist groups?See Dates page for TEST 1; covering all materials listed before the date; a mixture of multiple choice, paragraphs, and an essay.General questions:
- What motivates domestic terrorism? How is it distinct from international terrorism?
- What strategies do domestic groups adopt?
- What trends are there in domestic terrorism?
- What types of domestic groups are there?
- What are the targets of domestic terrorist groups?Critical thinking session on terrorism and US constitutional rights
- In principle, should rights (to free speech, free association, free exercise of religion and ownership of firearms) be limited by the State?
- How did the Federalists handle seditious speech in their administrations?
- How did associations develop in the US in the C19th compared to those in the Old World?
- How did the courts handle protests against 3 major wars in the C20th?
- What are the practical difficulties in preventing terrorism by arresting people for advocating political violence, joining terrorist associations or violent religions, and purchasing an arsenal of firearms?
- Given that the US permits a broad degree of free speech and holding firearms, to what degree does the open political system deflect terrorism into nonviolent political competition?
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 6. Terrorism and the Media | Lecture[Shannen, Nolan]
['12-13 notes] ['10-11 notes]
- If media publicity is the oxygen of terrorist campaigns, should they be barred from interviewing terrorists?
- Do media tend to reflect the State's or the terrorist group's point of view?
- Does the internet render the media uncontrollable?
- Should YouTube take down any videos posted by terrorist groups of their attacks?
- Could terrorist groups' websites be shut down?
- Does the internet enable security services' snooping more than it helps terrorists?
- Has posing as journalists been used more by assassins or by surveillance authorities?Week 8The Portuguese Waterboard Dog, cartoon by Peter Brookes, The Times (UK), 2009 [link replaced, also see Gdrive or find on Google images]Week 7
- How do international terrorist groups exploit the western mass media?
- What are the communications strategies of terrorist groups?
- To protect us from terrorism, should governments restrain the communications media?
- How should the media cover terrorism?
- How will media developments of the future affect the opportunities for terrorism?
- Is religion generally a force for peace rather than terrorism?
- Is an Islamic caliphate across the former Ottoman empire a goal of Islamic terrorism?
- Is the destruction of Western Christians a goal of Islamic terrorism?
- Is this in tension with the desire for a caliphate?
- Is Hinduism a motivation for terrorism?
- Is intentional suicide bombing only associated with Islam?
- Why did the IRA not engage in intentional suicide bombing?
- Can religion ever be as powerful a motivator as nationalism (or irredentism)?
- How can a State defend against terrorism motivated by religion?
Tests returned with comments and model paragraphs presented by students (during this, you may not write or type)
Badey (ed), Annual Editions: Violence and Terrorism Questions
UNIT 8. Women and Terrorism | Lecture[Brakia, Jack] ['12-13 notes] ['10-11 notes]
- Have women historically been victims rather than perpetrators of political violence?
- Can most women be trained to attack civilian populations for a political idea?
- What characteristics make women hard to defend against?
- What have been the roles of women in warfare, espionage and in terrorism?
- Is there any truth to the thesis that "black widows" make effective converts to terrorism?
- Are terrorist groups inhibited by their ideology from using women?
- Are there some causes and some cultures where women are featured as terrorists?General questions:
- What choices of response do governments face?
- Do law enforcement strategies have a successful track record with some types of terrorism?
- Is prevention of terrorism being taken far enough?
- How do governments attempt to surveill terrorism, and what are the limitations?
- What are the advantages of covert responses, including targetted assassination and arrest?
- What are the advantages of infantry occupation and regime change?
- What are the advantages of financial blocking?
- What are the advantages of hardening targets?
Questions on the readings:
- Is the war on terrorism really a cold war of ideas, and can a responsive Muslim government win this war?
- How have governments succeeded or failed in Indonesia, Nigeria, the Caucasus, and elsewhere?
- How well can governments distinguish between terrorists and civilians?
- How could governments prevent nuclear terrorism?
['12-13 notes] ['10-11 notes]
- What types of weapons might be used in future?
- What new causes of terrorism might emerge?
- What threats might come from climate change, migration and resource shortages?
- Will future conflicts come more from non-state actors than states?
- Can terrorist groups be co-opted in democracies?
- How might international terrorism mutate, and spread?
- WIll Western minority populations adopt foreign jihadi ideology?
- Will the cost of prevention prove too expensive to maintain?
Questions on readings:
- Has AQ, rather than being destroyed, simply moved to Yemen, Somalia and Pakistan?
- Is sudden radicalization of youth going to be a continuing threat to the US, and how? Will it defeat surveillamce (which cannot intervene until radicalization of youth)?
- Is piracy off Africa funding terrorism, and how can it be contained?
JRT Lewis [Slide] Legal constraints on Interrogations | Lecture
Notes on US policy on interrogations and torture
- How does US and international law constrain the US from using torture?
- Is there a difference between torture and physical ill treatment of captives?
- How did the G.W. Bush administration use executive actions to evade constraints?
- What are the consequences for the US of enhanced interrogation techniques?
Pew global attitudes survey, July 2005, attitudes to Islamist terrorism.
[Chart and summary by Dr. Lewis]
- How do nations support or oppose Islamist terrorism?
- Should the Bush administration have assuaged world opinion?
- Has the Bush administration's war in Iraq been counter-productive?
Possible showing of documentary film on terrorism, not tested unless shown
PART 2: POLITICS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIESHauss 11: Less Developed Countries | Discussion Notes | Lecture | PPTWeek 9
Thinking about Less Developed World | Evolution of LDC Politics | Political Culture | Political Participation | Weak States | Public policy: Myths and realities of Development
- How can we properly compare nations and states?
- What are the proper units and benchmarks of comparison?
- How can we analyze a moving target?
- What themes can we use for comparison?
- What neutral point is there to begin our comparison?
Griffiths, Unit 1. Understanding the developing world [selections only] | Lecture [Katy & Jack]
- Does economic development drive political development -- or the reverse?
- Can emerging economies backslide -- or is development a linear process?
- Can the Marxist and capitalist theories of development ever be reconciled?
- Will demographic trends favor -- or frustrate development?
- How did poverty, health and family incomes change in the 2000s?
- Does "the rise of the rest" hurt the West?
Griffiths, Unit 2. Political economy & the developing world [selections only] | Lecture [Reporters]
- Will developing countries be more cautious about accepting loans and free trade after the financial crisis of 2008-09?
- Will emerging markets be more buoyant in future than developed ones?
- Should development aid be reformed into aid that reaches more people than the elites?
- How can aid tackle the widespread diseases of developing countries?
- Is non-profit donation to developing countries a helpful model of development?
- Check Dates page for due date for Research Design
Comparison of capitalist, Social Dem. and communist countries, using CIA World Factbook:Lecture with graphs and maps from Branko Milanovic (2011) The Haves and Have-Nots (Basic Books, highly recommended) | PPT
- How can we compare countries by income per head: rich, middle income and poor?
- How can we compare the inequality among these countries by individuals, provinces and nation states?
- Has global equality since the industrial revolution increased or decreased?
- Which types are richer (higher per capita income at PPP)? | Lecture [Reporter]
- India is a large, capitalist country and China a large, officially 'communist' country: compare them.
What sources of good, comparative data are available online?
How can we compare income, population trends, health issues, or spending on public programs?
See GDP per cap table
- Which are more unequal in incomes? Is equality a goal of states? | Lecture [Reporter]
See Gini index rankings: 25 is low inequality, 50+ is high
Gini curve of Denmark, Hungary and Namibia
Compare health care spending across Western Europe (OECD 2010; cf USA 18-19% of GDP)
Compare suicide rates of countries on interactive map (WHO, 2012 data; cf USA in high group)
Population pyramid of Hungary (official, 2005) (link updated 2015)Hauss 8: Current and Former Communist Regimes | Lecture | Discussion NotesWeek 10
Thinking About Communism | Socialism, Marxism, Leninism | The Marxist-Leninist State | The Crisis of Communism: Suicide by Public Policy | Transitions | Troubled Transitions: The Former Soviet Union
- Why should there be any nostalgia for past communist regimes?
- Why should former communist parties attract voters in new democracies?
- What was the role of Gorbachev in the transition from communism?
- What did perestroika and glasnost mean to Russians?
- Are there any truly Marxist countries left?
- In what way does thinking about communist regimes expose our assumptions about government?
- What are the tenets of Socialism, Marxism and Leninism?
- What was democratic centralism? A command economy?
- How did Orwell's Animal Farm satirize Stalin?
- How are liberals and socialists divided on the means of production? equality of outcome? the spread of democracy?
- What to Marx are the economic base? contradictions? superstructure? need for revolution?
More general questions: | Lecture
- How do Socialism, Marxism and Leninism differ?
- What was missing from Socialism that Marx sought to add?
- What was missing from Marxism that Lenin sought to add?
- How did Lenin seek to turn theory into practice?
- Why did communist regimes decline and fall in the 1980s?
- Why did Russia not develop smoothly (economically and politically) post 1989?
Griffiths, Unit 3: Conflict and instability | Lecture [selections only] [Reporter]
- Is the global trend towards more or less political violence?
- Is technology making conflict more or less violent?
- Did the Arab spring decrease or increase the conflict between regional powers in the Middle East?
- Have peacekeeping or humanitarian interventions done more harm than good?
- Should peacekeeping or humanitarian forces be more heavily armed?
- Will the aging of the developed world population shift the balance of power?Hauss 9: Russia | Discussion Notes | Maps of Asia| Maps of Russia | LectureWeek 11
Russia's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporter]
Brief Lecture on Russian revolutionary history
Hauss: Thinking About Russia | The Evolution of the Russian State | Between Dictatorship and Democracy | Political Culture and Participation | The Russian State | Public Policy
- What was the history of Russian political institutions before 1917?
- Why did Bolsheviki overturn the Russian state?
- How did Stalin replace Lenin in control of the state?
- Who should control the nation state?
- If the State works for the people, why is there a need to restrain it?
- Why did Marxist-Leninist regimes fail to develop economically alongside other regimes?
See Dates page for TEST 2, covering all the above, a mixture of multiple choice, paragraphs, and an essay.
Hauss 10: China | Maps of Asia | Discussion Notes | Lecture with PPT
Questions on Joseph's textbook (discontinued)
China's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Reporter]
Brief Lecture on Chinese revolutionary history
Hauss: | Thinking about China | Evolution of Chinese Politics | Political Culture | Political Participation | Chinese State | Public policy
Comparing Chinese and Russian communism in power: Discussion Notes | Lecture
- How does China's heritage affect development?
- How did China awake to the modern age?
- How did Maoism take root in China?
- What were the effects of the civil war on China?
- How did communism constrain China's modern development?
- How did the CCP open up economics to market forces?
China's 2015 public relations video advertising the "Shi San Wu" (13th Five-Year Plan, in style of late 1960s hippie folk songs, pretty bad, on YouTube). Will be used by Prof. LE Grinter in his presentation to class.Tests returned with comments and model paragraphs presented by students (During this, nobody takes notes or records discussion).
Hauss 12: India | Maps | Discussion Notes | Lecture
India's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Ben]
Hauss: Thinking about India | Evolution of Indian Politics | Political Culture | Political Participation | Indian State | Public policy
- How does India's heritage affect development?
- How did India achieve independence?
- How did India forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could India exploit for development?
- Does India show that development is compatible with open democracy?
Comparing the issues faced in the twenty first century in China, India, Mexico and Turkey: how can political development be reconciled with tolerance, change of governing party, reducing corruption, and liberal democracy? Brief lecture
- Can the Chinese CP accept competition in the provinces, if not in Beijing?
- Can the new technocratic powers within the CP maintain control over the ideological forces of the CP?
- Can the Indian Congress (I) party accept the transition to the BJP (Hindutva party), and can the BJP government tolerate the large Muslim minority?
- In Mexico, can the reformist PAN replace the corrupt PRI while governing effectively -- and controlling the distruptive violence of narcos (drug gangs) across the country?
- In Turkey, can the AK (Muslim) party govern effectively upholding democracy and tolerance of secular forces?
- In China, India, Mexico and Turkey, can governance be effective while reducing corruption?
Hauss 16: Latin America | Maps | Discussion Notes on Latin America | Lecture
Mexico | Maps | Discussion Notes on Mexico | Briefing on Mexico's modern regimes from 1863
Mexico's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Katy]
Hauss: Thinking about Mexico | Evolution of the Mexican State | Political Culture | Political Participation | The Mexican State | Public Policy
- How does Mexico's heritage affect development?
- How did Mexico achieve independence?
- How did Mexico forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could Mexico exploit for development?
- Does Mexico show that development is compatible with open democracy?
- How is Mexico affected by proximity to the US?
Griffiths, Unit 4: Political Change in the developing world [selections only] [Shannen] | Lecture
- What factors cause turmoil in the Middle East -- and what calms it?
- Was the Arab spring only a short term phenomenon?
- Have the military and the Muslim Brotherhood been moderating influences in the Arab spring?
- Is the Chinese engagement abroad dangerous for human rights?
- Would it be dangerous to give developing nations seats in the councils of power?For the ePaper, deliverable by TurnItIn, see Dates page, Citations page and Requirements page
Note that, for readability, ePapers are now delivered to <jLewis> as well as to Turnitin.Thanksgiving week: no classesWeek 12Hauss 15: Africa | MapsWeek 13
Nigeria | Maps | Discussion Notes | Lecture
Nigeria's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Dylan]
Thinking about Nigeria | Evolution of the Nigerian State | Political Culture and Participation | The Nigerian State | Public Policy
- How does Nigeria's heritage affect development?
- How did Nigeria achieve independence?
- How did Nigeria forge a nation?
- What were the after effects of colonialism?
- What resources could Nigeria exploit for development?
- Does Nigeria show that development is compatible with open democracy?
Hauss 13: Iran| Maps| Discussion Notes | LectureIran's rankings in CIA World Factbook [Nolan]- How does Iran's heritage affect development?
The Basics | Evolution of the Iranian State | The People and Politics | The Iranian State | Public Policy
- How did Iran achieve independence?
- How is the constitution constructed to match theocracy with democracy?
- How does Iran exploit oil for development?
- How is development affected by Iran's relations with the global community?
- Does Iran show that development is compatible with theocracy?
Terrorist Attack on Paris 11/14/15 analysis exercise, upload to Google Drive folder.
Map of the attacks in Paris, Nov. 2015 | Charlie Hebdo attacks, Jan. 2015
Map of the Schengen zone (without border controls)
Map of travel routes from Bataclan, Paris, to Stade-de-France, St. Denis
Street & Metro map of northern half of Paris (zoom to Oberkampf Metro)
Metro map only, topological and zoomable
- Timeline, weapons, perpetrators, locations, targets, casualties
- What does this tell you about the terrorists' strategy and goals?
- What does this tell you about the necessary counter terrorism measures?
Critical thinking sessions (with PPT) about design of research briefing.
Current affairs online search exercise by G forms:Topical Issues of Developing Regions (selections, as time permits)
COP21 United Nations Climate Change Conference 2015: applying current affairs to the course materials on preserving the biosphere. [Google form] UK parliamentary debate (live) on authorizing force against Da'esh terrorists in Syria Was the San Bernadino massacre motivated by terrorism? [Discussion only]
Griffiths, Unit 5: Population, resources, environment and health [selections only] [Brakia] | Lecture
Maps of rivers flowing across national borders: Nile (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and others, to Egypt) | Euphrates (Turkey and Syria to Iraq)
- As resources dry up, how will our costs increase?
- What types of precious resources are located in unstable regimes or conflicted areas?
- How could trade conflicts increase dangers?
- What is the value of water -- and where is it going to be in short supply?
- WIth new technology in energy, which sources will be transformed?
- Which types of energy are more damaging than others?
- As the sources of energy shift, which countries will gain or lose economically?
- Where can energy demand be reduced?
- With new technology in agriculture and manufacturing, which areas will be transformed, and which any moderately improved?
- WIll climate change exceed the effects of global warming?
- As some areas lose fishing or agriculture, and others gain, can cooperation among states exceed the tensions and control conflict?
- Where can the US or the UN intervene to prevent conflict turning to force?
(Hauss's chapter on Iraq has been discontinued in the Ninth Edition.)
Briefings of research
Week 14Comprehensive final exam, for two hours; see Dates page, expect multiple choice and essay questions, in usual classroom. May include Maps exercise.Briefings of research
Women and Development | Lecture
The history of economic mobilization of women in the WestThe industrial revolution in the WestModels for mobilization of women in the developing world
The office technology revolution in the West, 1890-1910
The Great War, 1914
The second world war, 1939-45
Benefits disproportionately for women of the New Deal and the British NHS
The wave of feminism 1962-1970
Women in the educated professions, 1980-
The revolution of conduct in the office, 1986-
Political mobilization and leadership across Western societiesEducationGeneral questions about mobilizing women for development:
Microfinance and microbusiness, cell phone finance
Health initiatives for women and children
- Does educating women have a multiplier effect since it also educates children?
- Do De Tocqueville's comments about American women translate to modern developing countries?
- Do developed workplace rules support women increasingly well - is that a potential factor in development?
- Do western welfare states support women more than men, and could that aid developing nations?
- Do women chatter [converse] more than men - and will they succeed in related businesses & professions?
- Do women who are used to caring for children and older relatives pay more attention to long term development, and will this translate to developing small businesses more successfully?
- Are women inherently more peaceful than men, especially young men, and can this translate to development of peace and prosperity?
- Will women develop village businesses and repay micro-loans better than men?
Griffiths, Unit 6: Women & development [selections only] [Shannen]
- How does the marginalization of women retard economic development?
- In what ways were women helped or harmed by the Arab spring?
- Has the international community been at all successful in holding accountable those who commit mass crimes against women?
- In what ways and to what degree do multinational corporations empower women?
Class online Investigation: What are international organizations doing to emancipate and develop women globally?GatesFoundation.orgPossible showing of documentary film
Global Fund for Women
Women's World Banking
United Nations: UNwomen.org
Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995
- Report [PDF]: Beijing20.unwomen.org
- Hillary Clinton's address on YouTube/Clinton Library
Women, War and Peace: Liberia (Documentary film, PBS, 2009)
Possible documentary film showing
Students should prepare, with Atlas, for Maps exercise.