No classes, Fall 2015:
M 7 Sep, F 18 & 25 Sep, F 9, 16 & 30 Oct, F 14 Nov, 23-27 Nov.
Week:    [dinner party]  [Test 1]    [Test 2]   [Test 3]    [Honors Project]  14] [Final] [Scores]
Reading Timetable | Janda Website | US politics | Serow readings notes for rdgs 1-62 | 63+
Week 1First session: Explanation of course, check info, themes of the course.Week 2
Janda/Hula, Essentials 1: Dilemmas of Democracy, combines Full 1 & 2. [Discussion]
Janda, Full 1: Freedom, Order or Equality? Publisher: Janda, Full 1
- Is there a political dilemma between freedom and order? [Janda]
- Is there a modern dilemma between freedom and equality? [Janda]
- How can these two dilemmas give us four types of political belief in modern US? [Janda]
- What kinds of policy or values are upheld by each political belief? [Janda]
- How do the four boxes of political beliefs differ from a traditional European spectrum of politics? [Janda]
Homework: Idealog (Web) [How to print or capture graphs] ['10] ['11] ['12] ['13] ['14]
- Are you liberal, libertarian, communitarian or conservative?
Print screen or capture resulting graph, send to
Honors students: Amitai Etzioni. 2013. "Communitarianism" in Joel Krieger (ed), Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics. (NY: OUP). pp. 221-223. [Local PDF]
- What are common goods or public goods -- and how do classical liberals and communitarians differ about these?
Web fun: Politics on YouTube, 2007-Janda/Hula, Essentials 1: Dilemmas of Democracy, combines Full 1 & 2. [Discussion]Week 3
Janda, Full 2: Majoritarian or Pluralist Democracy? Publisher: Janda, Full 2
- How can we make democracy work? [Janda]
- Should a majority rule on every question? [Janda]
- Are minority rights better protected by interest groups than by majoritarian democracy? [Janda]
- Will a larger Republic give us a safe balance of interest groups? [Janda]
Serow 1: American Ideology
1: Alexis de Tocqueville, "Democracy in America." [Reporter]
- What types of equality do Americans enjoy?
2: James Bryce, "the American Commonwealth." [Reporter]
- Does democracy require social and economic as well as political equality?
- In what way did inequality in the US change between the 1830s and the 1880s?
Serow 1: 5: Cornell West, "Race Matters" [Reporter]
- What types of equality are consistent with the US Founders ideas?
- Is US democracy incomplete without social or economic equality?
- Arguments made in speeches during the Republican National Convention, 2012
Fun: Online Political Quotes Game (Wadsworth)
- Who authored these famous political quotations?
Fun: Beloit College's mindset of freshmen: what did YOU grow up with?
- What elements of popular culture ended when present freshmen were born? [Beloit]
- What analogies in the classroom would not make sense to current freshmen? [Beloit]
- And -- what do freshmen know that leaves professors ignorant? [Beloit]Janda/Hula, Essentials 2: Constitution | Lecture notesSunday
Fixed or elastic? Constitutional excerpts
Notes to Full 3: Constitution | Publisher: Janda, Full 3
US Constitution (text) | (annotated version)
- How was the constitution formed and ratified? [Janda]
- What plans were proposed for the US constitution? [Janda]
- What compromises were made to secure approval of the constitution? [Janda]
- Is the constitution fixed or elastic (living)?
- Should we follow the original intent -- and was that to let the constitution evolve?
- What amendments have been made to the US constitution? [Janda]
Team quiz on fixed or elastic clauses
Serow 2: Constitution & American Democracy:
8: Richard Hofstadter, "The American Political Tradition." [Reporter]
- Is there an identifiable American political tradition?
10: James Madison, The Federalist Papers, No. 10" [Reporter]
- How can the mischief of factions be controlled?
- What are the wicked projects that the Larger Republic will prevent?
12: C. Wright Mills, "The Power Elite." [Reporter]
- Who runs the US behind the scenes, a small elite or a broad set of groups?
14: Robert Dahl, "Who Governs?" [Reporter]
- Do all citizens become incorporated into this group struggle?
Honors students: Alex Altman, "The Prophet," How Ron Paul Became One of the Most Influential ..." Time, 5 Sep. 2011 [Dbox]
- What were the ideological influences on this libertarian leader?
- Why does the author argue Rep. Paul has become influential?
Dr. and Mrs. Lewis invite current and former students, with friends, to their home for an annual candle-lit dinner, 3-6 pm on Sunday. See Dates page, and check email for driving directions.
High resolution images found here | Low resolution images here
Week 4Janda/Hula, Essentials 3: Federalism | PPT | Notes to Full 4: Federalism | Publisher: Janda, Full 4Week 5
- How has the relation of federal to state and local government changed over time? [Janda]
- What does the federal government provide to states and localities? [Janda]
- What is the proper relation of federal government to states? [Janda]
Excerpts of the US Constitution for selected issues
US Constitution, Article I, Sections 8-10: powers of Congress & states
US Constitution, Article IV, Sections 1-4: relations among states
US Constitution, Amendments IX and X: powers reserved to people & states
US Constitution, Article VI: supremacy clause
- How does the "necessary and proper" clause affect federal relations?
- Are amendments IX and X in tension with the "necessary and proper" and "Supremacy clauses?
- Can the Governor (or Chief Justice) of Alabama "nullify" a federal law?
- Which should be supreme, the federal government or our state?
- Should there be a right of secession?
US Constitution Day. Our class may be asked to include additional, interested students; we may also be asked to explain the constitution to other students in a different classroom. Watch your Hawks email for any instructions.
JusticeLearning.org [notes] explains US constitution & justice issues
http://www.constitutionday.us/ has useful links.
Cornell.edu also has a fine, more advanced, US constitution site.
Serow 3 & 4: Separation of Powers & Federalism
15: James Madison, Federalist No. 51."[Reporter?]
- Why do we separate powers into different institutions?
- How can the branches of government be made to check each other?
17: James Sterling Young, "The Washington Community." [Reporter?]
- How did the early Congress develop?
18: James Madison, "Federalist Papers, Nos. 39 and 46." [Reporter?]
- What is the relation of federal to state and local governments?
20: Daniel Elazar, "American Federalism." [Reporter?]
See Dates page for TEST 1, which covers all materials listed above this line, unless otherwise noted, and may include both multiple choice and written work (bring Scantron card, pencil and dark ballpoint pen).Janda/Hula, Essentials 4: Public Opinion, Political Socialization and the Media [Discussion] [Hula PPT] [Lewis PPT]Week 6
(Combines Janda Full edition, chapters 5 & 6)
Notes to Janda, Full 5: Public Opinion and Political Socialization | Publisher: Janda, Full 5
Michael Anft, "With Due Respect to James Madison," Johns Hopkins Magazine, Fall 2011 [Dbox]
Serow 10: Public Opinion
57: V.O. Key, "Public Opinion and American Democracy." [Reporter?]
- Can public opinion provide a democratic check on political elites?
- What is the role of public opinion and elite decisionmaking?
58: Thomas Cronin, "Direct Democracy." [Reporter?]
- Is direct democracy feasible -- or will it destroy republican government?
- What are the initiative, referendum and recall?
59: Lawrence Jacobs and Robert Shapiro, "Politicians don't Pander" [Reporter?]
- Do politicians follow or lead public opinion?
- Do politicians just say what people want to hear?
60: David Moore, "The Opinion Makers" [+] [Reporter?]
- Can polls be wrong, and if so, how?
Test 1 returned with exemplary paragraphs presented
Web fun: Political Compass: plots your ideological position from a quiz; explanation of the two dimensions of political thinking [local file]. (More sophisticated than Idealog). [Link updated, 2014]
Web fun: Mother Jones video channel, Mitt Romney speaks at fundraiser about Obama Voters
Colbert Nation, Mitt Romney's Secret Video, parody, 18 Sep. 2012Notes to Janda Full 6: Media [Discussion] Publisher: Janda, Full 6Week 7
Lecture on the relationship of public opinion with the media
Lecture on media organizations, audiences, interests, and techniques
- How much media coverage is of politics? [Janda]
- How do the media vary in their needs and qualities? [Janda]
- Do citizens receive enough information to be sovereign in politics? [Janda]
Serow 14: Media
77: Larry Sabato, "Feeding Frenzy." [Reporter]
- Has reporting of politics deteriorated since Watergate into personal scandals?
78: Morley Winograd and Michael Hais, "Millennial Makeover" [+] [Reporter]
- Do the new electronic media create a new kind of politics?
79: Cass Sunstein, "Republic.com 2.0" [+] [Reporter]
- Does the social media age really lead to better democratic discussion?
- Do weblogs engage in debate with those of diferent views?
- Do blogs have any incentive to spread truth rather than falsehoods?
- Do citizens still have a shared experience, yet still confronting opposite views?
80: Diana Mutz, "How the Mass Media Divide Us" [+] [Reporter]
- Have political debate shows polarized us?
81: Russell Peterson, "Strange Bedfellows" [+] [Reporter]
- Can political comedy shows replace political news?
Howard Kurtz, "Roger's Reality Show," Newsweek, 25 Sep. 2011[Reporter]
- Do networks have points of view, and are journalists directed to these?
- Do networks report news -- or do they also behave as political actors?
- Do networks keep a line between propaganda and news with analysis?
NBC Nightly News archive, a video package on the 1996 Iowa Caucuses
- How is a reporter's work packaged as a video for TV news?
- What are the elements of a video package, and in what sequence?
- What is the role of 'expert' analysts?
Web fun: Media parody; reliance on media reports
Roger Simon's parody of Paul Ryan/Mitt Romney tension is taken seriously, Sep. 2012Janda/Hula, Essentials 5: Participation & Voting | Lecture, with charts and PPTWeek 8
Notes to Full 7: Participation and Voting | Publisher: Janda, Full 7
- What types of participation are conventional or unconventional? [Janda]
- How well do Americans turn out to vote?
- What causes high or low electoral turnout?
- Is US turnout rising or falling, and does it matter?
- Are US citizens patriotic or alienated from the system?
- Why was voting so common in the C19th?
- What is the effect of education on turnout?
- Should voting be mandatory?
Lecture on Opinion Polling
- How do pollsters construct an accurate poll? How do they sample?
- How do they construct fair questions and answers?
- How can they predict a large electorate from a small sample?
- What is the margin of sampling error? How is it related to the Sample size?
See Dates page for Test 2, which may include both multiple choice and written questions on all materials listed above this line, unless otherwise noted.
Serow 12: Voting & Elections: [Civics Model]
69: David Campbell, "Why We Vote" (2006) [+] [Reporter]
- Why would a young adult choose to vote, anyway?
- Do we vote to show civic support - or to take sides in a struggle?
- Is there a different motivation in voting when your community thinks alike, than when it is diverse?
- If a diverse community faces a controversy, will turnout increase or drop?
- Will a homogenous community turn out better for an election?
70: Chuck Todd and Sheldon Gawiser, "How Barack Obama Won" (2009) [+] [Reporter] [PPT]
- What people and what events caused the (perhaps gifted but inexperienced) Sen. Obama to be elected US President?
- How did Sen. Obama's announcement signal his strategy differently than the announcements of Sens. McCain and Clinton?
- How did Sen. Obama overcome the more experienced Sen. Clinton?
- How did Sen. McCain and Sen. Clinton fall short in strategy?
- Which Democratic candidate for nomination obtained more delegates in caucus states? In primary states?
- Did the VP candidates strengthen their party tickets - or hurt them?
- Was this the start of a realignment of voters in presidential elections back towards the democrats?
- How did Todd & Gawiser expect the Republicans to react to their electoral loss in 2008?
Example of opinion poll report:
Time, "Poll results: American's views on teachers tenure, merit pay ..." (Survey data, Sep. 2010, on ways to improve US schools)Janda/Hula, Essentials 6: Political Parties, Elections & Campaigns [Discussion]Week 9
Notes to Full 8: Political Parties | Publisher: Janda, Full 8
- What are the functions of political parties?
- What are the US political parties like?
- How do US political parties differ from those in Europe?
- Are political parties gathering strength or weakening over time?
- Are parties private organizations or public, regulated ones?
- How has the US system of parties changed over time?
- Are some elections more important than others?
Test 2 returned and exemplary paragraphs presented
Cartoon of the 1896 election, where Mark Hanna and William McKinley hold hands with Trust [Dbox]
Mo Rocca, "Electoral College 101", an Op-Doc, brief version of PBS documentary film, hosted by NY Times
Serow 13: Political Parties
71: Walter Dean Burnham, "Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics." (1970) [Reporter]
- Are some elections more important than others?
- What is a realignment of voters, and is one occurring currently?
72: Morley Winograd & Michael Hais, "Millennial Makeover" (2008) [+] [Reporter]
- How are millenials becoming active and are they changing the nature of politics?
73: John Judis, "America the Liberal: The Democratic Majority: It Emerged!" (2008) [+] [Vise]
- Which groups does Judis claim have realigned with the democrats?
- How does Judis distinguish between two types of realignment?
- Why does Judis think a democratic President must act quickly?
74: Stuart Rothenberg, "Is 2008 a Realigning Election? Numbers Offer Some Clues." (2008) [+] [Reporter]
- Has there been a realignment of voters, and how would it be confirmed by the data?
75: Ronald Brownstein, "The Second Civil War" (2007) [+] [Reporter]
- Are the political parties now really polarized?
76: Kate Zernike, "Boiling Mad" (2010) [+] [Reporter]
- Has the Tea Party enhanced American Politics? What does it stand for? [+]Notes to Janda, Full 9: Nominations, Elections and Campaigns [Discussion] Publisher: Janda, Full 9Week 10
- What are the stages of the nomination process?
- What kinds of primary and caucus are there?
- Does the presidential nomination process deliver good quality candidates?
- How well do third parties fare in campaigns?
- How does the election system count the votes?
- Can the "wrong" president be elected?
- Is the role of money in US elections excessive?
- What is the role of PACs and 527 groups in US elections?
- How are US elections exceptional compared to other rich countries?
- Should political TV advertising -- or opinion polling -- be banned?
Serow 12: Voting & Elections:
66: Dante Scala, "Stormy Weather" (2003) [+] [Georgianna]
- Is New Hampshire the right state to hold the first primary?
- How is campaigning unusual in NH?
- How do the media cover 'expectations'?
- Why do potential candidates for the Presidency visit NH years before the election?
67: Dennis Johnson, "No Place for Amateurs" (2001) [Reporter]
- What are the functions of a campaign consultant, and is it worth hiring one?
- What role do professionals play in campaigns?
- Can professionals win an election, or only advise those who do?
68: David Mark, "Going Dirty" (2006) [+] [Reporter]
- Is negative campaigning a new strategy, and is it changing the nature of campaigns?
- Have the most famous negative ads actually been effective - and have they been immoral?
- Has negative campaigning actually got worse over the past few decades?
- Which candidates have been most successfully attacked with TV ads?
Collection of political TV ads from YouTube, by year
Notorious negative ads (search):
The Daisy girl ad from LBJ campaign 1964
- How often was this shown?
The ice cream girl ad (the replacement) from the LBJ campaign 1964
- Why did this one replace the daisy girl spot?
The Willie Horton ad for Bush campaign 1988 and discussion with Lee Atwater and others.
- What are "dog whistles" in politics, and are they merely disguised race baiting?
- How are negative ads multiplied by free media?
Famous positive ads:
It's morning in America, from the Reagan campaign, 1984
I Like Ike, from the Eisenhower campaign, 1952 and 1956
Longer introductory ad for Gerald R. Ford, 1976
- How much effect do positive ads have?
- In a close 1976 election, should Carter or Ford have gone negative?
1960 Kennedy campaign ads
1960 First televised debate between Kennedy and Nixon
Current campaign maps and voter demographics[PPT]
Web: RealClearPolitics poll data; CNN electoral college map; Pollster.com on AL
RealClearPolitics: Senate Map| Governors Map
- Are the Democrats likely to retain a majority of the Senate?
- What happens if the Republican gain the majority of the Senate?
- Why are some Senate seats not subject to election this (or any one) year?
- What are the stakes if the Republicans gain control of the majority of Governors' seats?
- What is the difference between an open seat and a seat with an incumbent?See Dates page for Test 3; it will cover all materials listed above this line, unless otherwise noted, and may include both multiple choice and written work.Week 11
Honors students (and those taking research project for upper level courses): tutorial in office, on research projects.
Janda/Hula, Essentials 7: Interest Groups | Notes to Janda, Full 10: Interest Groups | Publisher: Janda Full 10
- How can interest groups influence US politics?
- Does lobbying produce a balance of interests?
- Do interest groups represent all voters -- or mostly the upper classes?
Serow 11: Interest Groups:
61: Alexis de Tocqueville, "Democracy in America." (1835)[Reporter]
- How active are Americans in joining interest groups?
- Are active interest groups compatible with democracy?
62: EE Schattschneider, "The Semisovereign People." (1960)[Reporter]
- Who does the interest group balance favor?
63 Richard Skinner, "More Than Money" (2007) [+][Reporter]
- Are interest groups increasing or fading in influence in US politics?
64: Robert Kaiser, "So Much Damn Money" (2009) [+] [Reporter]
- How can a lobbying firm be built up and what role does it play?
65: Joe Garcia,"La Gran Opportunidad /Up For Grabs /The Hispanic Opportunity" (2009)[+] [PPT] [Reporter]
- Will Hispanics ever become a powerful force in US politics? What do they seek?
- What are the political characteristics of Hispanics?
Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Constitutional Quiz | "Our Fading Heritage" (conclusions of survey)
Report your own score to class. There are only 33 questions, so it does not take long.
- Which questions caused you more difficulty?
- Is this a fair test of civic literacy, not not?
Notorious presidential TV ad spots: the 2004 campaign on national security issues
Independent organizations developed the most hard-hitting ads that year.
Swift Boat Veterans for Truth: Sellout ad
Swiftboat Veterans Ad on John Kerry - Any Questions (2004)
David Zucker- John Kerry Flip Flop Ad
Historical Campaign Ad: Windsurfing (Bush-Cheney '04)
How the windsurfing ad was made
Lloyd Bentsen & Dan Quayle, "Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy" (1988 VP debate, short version, 33"), out of context
Lloyd Bentsen and Dan Quayle, "Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy" ('88 VP Debate, full answer 3')
Janda/Hula, Essentials 8: Congress [PPT] [Discussion; 2011 additions]Week 12
Notes to Janda Full 11: Congress | Publisher: Janda Full 11 |
- Does the member of Congress function as a Trustee, a Delegate -- or a mixture?
US Constitution, Article I, Section 8: powers of Congress
- How is congress organized?
- What are the powers of House and Senate?
- How do districts get redrawn?
- How well do incumbents get re-elected? Why?
- How do voters assess their own member - and the whole Congress?
- Does the Congress reflect the nation's characteristics?
- Is it constitutional to gerrymander districts?
- How does a bill become law?
- What are the differences between House and Senate?
- How do committees work?
Test 3 returned and exemplary paragraphs presented
Advising week. How to pick courses for spring pre-registration: two for major field, two for core, one elective, and you will be able to graduate on time (transfer students may need to modify this).
Serow 5: Congress
22: David Mayhew, "Congress, The Electoral Connection."[Reporter]
- Does congressional behavior work purely toward re-election?
- What methods do congressmen use in serving constituents for re-election?
23: Richard Fenno, "Home Style"[Reporter]
- How do members represent themselves in their home districts?
- How do US Reps. ensure re-election?
24: Sarah Binder, "Stalemate" (2003) [+][Reporter]
- Is there much gridlock stopping policymaking -- and what are the causes?
25: Gregory Wawro & Eric Schickler, "Filibuster" (2006) [+] [Reporter]
- Why do many bills and nominations never pass the Senate?
26: Michele Swers, "The Difference Women Make" (2002) [+] [Reporter]
- Has it made any difference having women in Congress?
28: Paul Starobin, "Pork: A Time Honored Tradition Lives On"[Reporter]
- What is the reason for pork barreling? [Starobin; Ellwood]
29: John Ellwood and Eric Patashnik, “In Praise of Pork”[Reporter]
- Does pork (earmarks) actually help Congress function?
30: Senator John McCain, "Hey There! SenJohnMcCain is Using Twitter" (2009) [+] [Reporter]
- What pork projects do politicians obtain -- even when they oppose pork?
31: David Price, "The Congressional Experience"[Reporter]
- What is the experience like for a new US Rep.?Janda/Hula, Essentials 9: The Presidency [PPT]Week 13
Notes to Janda, Full 12: The Presidency | Publisher: Janda Full 12
US Constitution, Article II, sections 2-3: powers of presidency
US Constitution, Article II, section 1: installation and removal
US Constitution, Article II, section IV: impeachment
- What are the powers of the presidency versus Congress and the courts?
- How has the presidency swelled?
- How is the presidency organized?
- How can the presidency supervise the bureaucracy?
Serow 6: Presidency
32: Richard Neustadt, Presidential Power." (1990)[Reporter]
- Does the president have any power beyond persuasion?
33: Arthur Schlesinger, "The Imperial Presidency" (1973)[Reporter]
- Has the presidency grown too powerful, and why?
34: Michael Cairo, "The Imperial Presidency Triumphant" (2006) [+][Reporter]
- Does the W. Bush presidency demonstrate the imperial presidency in foreign policy?
35: Thomas Cronin, "The Paradoxes of the Presidency" (1998)[Reporter]
- Do we expect too much of the presidency?
36: Craig Rimmerman, "Rise of the Plebiscitary Presidency" (1993) [+] [Reporter]
- Did the Founders intend the presidency to base decisions on public opinion?
37: Gil Troy, "Leading From the Center" (2008) [+][Reporter]
- Do Presidents govern from the radical wings or from the center?
38: Bradley Patterson, "White House Chief of Staff" (2000) [+] [Reporter]
- What is the role of the WH chief of staff?Janda/Hula, Essentials 9: The Bureaucracy [PPT]| Lecture [PPT]Thanksgiving: whole week
Notes to Janda, Full 13: The Bureaucracy | Publisher: Janda Full 13
- How is the bureaucracy organized? [Janda]
- What are the characteristics and scale of US agencies? [Janda]
- How are bureaucracies influenced by Congress, the courts and the presidency? [Janda]
- Do bureaucracies inevitably grow, or can they be controlled and limited? [Janda]
- What are the characteristics and problems of bureaucracy? [Lecture]
- Can bureaucracy be privatized, and what are the effects? [Lecture]
- If we contract out, what are the problems of controlling the monopoly? [Lecture]
Serow 7: Executive Branch
39: Hugh Heclo, "Government of Strangers." (1977)[Reporter]
- How do career civil servants and political appointees get along?
40: Paul Light, " A Government Ill Executed" (2008) [+][Reporter]
- What are the pitfalls of implementing policies?
41: Reich, "Locked in the Cabinet" (1997) [Reporter]
- How difficult is it for a new cabinet secretary to hire appointees?
42: James Q. Wilson, "Bureaucracy" (1989) [Reporter]
- What is the nature of bureaucracy?
Thinking critically [with PPT] about research design for Honors research project: (for Honors students plus anyone also taking an upper level PSC course) see Dates page, Citations APSA page, and Requirements for Projects page (corrected link).
Note that, for readability, ePapers are now delivered to
as well as to Turnitin.
Week 14Janda/Hula, Essentials 11: The Courts [PPT] | Lecture with PPTFinals week
Notes to Janda, Full 14: The Courts | Publisher: Janda Full 14
US Constitution, Article III: judicial powers
- How are the courts structured? [Janda]
- What are the functions of the courts? [Janda]
- How does the judicial process work? [Janda]
- What is judicial review, and how did it develop differently in the US?
- Is judicial review compatible with democracy? [Janda]
- Is constitutional review a universal feature of developed constitutions, or unique to the US?
- Is judicial activism a liberal phenomenon or is it also found among conservative judges?
Serow 8: Judiciary
43: Alexander Hamilton, "The Federalist No. 78."[Reporter]
- Will judges be dangerous to the new republic?
44: Eugene Rostow, "The Democratic Character of Judicial Review."[Reporter]
- Is judicial review compatible with a democracy?
45: David O'Brien, "Storm Center." [Reporter]
- By what process does the supreme court decide cases?
46: David Yalof, "Pursuit of Justices" (1999) [+][Reporter]
- How are Supreme Court appointees nominated and confirmed - and who determines?
47: Richard Fallon, "The Dynamic Constitution" (2004) [+] [Reporter]
- To what degree can the Supremes make law themselves, regardless of public opinion?
Honors, briefings of research: the issue; the research question, the arguments; evidence; and findings.
Critical thinking sessions (with PPT examples) about audiovisual design.
website: Oyez: Supreme Court Cases | Docket
AL.com, AL suffers unlimited interest group donations to judicial campaigns, '07See Dates page for Comprehensive Final Examination, conducted for two hours, in usual classroom, covering all course materials.
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